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Alexandria ajalugu, Virginia

Alexandria ajalugu, Virginia

Aleksandria on iseseisev Virginia linn, mis ei ole seotud ühegi maakonnaga. Potomaci jõega idas ümbritseb seda maismaal Arlingtoni ja Fairfaxi maakond. Washington DC asub umbes kuus miili põhja pool. Aleksandria ala kuulus suuresti 1669. aastal kapten Robert Howsingile antud maad. Maamõõtjat John Westit aitas väidetavalt toona 19-aastane George Washington. , Alexandria oli osa algsest 10 miili suurusest Columbia rajoonist. Aleksandria prahistati linnaks 1852. aastal. Kodusõja ajal kasutasid liiduväed Aleksandriat, et varustada rindel vägesid ja transportida haavatud sõdureid haiglatesse. Aleksandria oli Virginia taastatud valitsuse pealinn aastatel 1863–1865. Aleksandria rannaäärne Torpeedotehas tootis laskemoona nii esimese kui ka teise maailmasõja ajal. Pärast sõjaväeobjektiks sulgemist renoveeriti ja arendati see ümber ning see on nüüd elava rannaäärse linnaosa süda.


Alexandria ajalugu, Virginia - ajalugu

Alexandria raamatukogu erikogude osakonnal on lai valik ressursse, mis aitavad teil uurida oma kodu ajalugu. Kasutades nii esmaseid kui ka teiseseid allikaid, saate leida teavet varasemate omanike, kinnisvara väärtuste, muudatuste ja täiustuste kohta ning võib -olla isegi leida foto või kaks. See ressursside loend on loodud selleks, et aidata teil oma uurimistööga alustada, see ütleb teile, millist teavet ressursist tõenäoliselt leiate ja kuidas see ressurss on korraldatud. Selle juhendi allikad keskenduvad peamiselt Aleksandria vanalinnale.

Lisaks käesoleva juhendi materjalidele on raamatukogus mitmeid avaldatud teoseid, mis keskenduvad teatud omadustele. Ressursid on kokku pandud mõnede Aleksandria tuntumate ajalooliste ehitiste kohta ja arheoloogilised aruanded on saadaval teiste vähemtuntud kinnistute kohta. Raamatukogu kataloogist konkreetse aadressi otsimisel võib leida täiendavat materjali.

Olulised faktid, mida teada

Aastatel 1791–1846 oli piirkond, mis on praegu Aleksandria linn ja Arlingtoni maakond (tollal tuntud kui Aleksandria maakond), osa Washingtonist. D.C. dokumentides võib olla teavet teie maja või selle omanike kohta.

Valdkonnad, mis on nüüdseks ühendatud Aleksandria linnaga, kuulusid kunagi Fairfaxi ja Arlingtoni maakondade koosseisu. Nende kahe maakonna dokumentides võib olla ka materjali, mis on teile kasulik.

Praegune Aleksandria tänavate nummerdamise süsteem loodi alles aastal 1888. Kui teie majaajaloo uurimine viib teid sellest punktist kaugemale, nummerdatakse majad teisiti kui praegu.

I OSA

Selle jaotise ressurssidele pääseb juurde maja aadressi kaudu, mis on tõenäoliselt algajale uurijale kättesaadav. Need allikad võivad anda teavet kinnisvara omanike kuupäevade kohta, millal kinnisvara ehitati, omanikku vahetati või seda muudeti, ning majaga seotud muudatuste kohta.

Aleksandria linna kataloogid - VA REF 917.55296 H

Varaseim linna kataloog, mis sisaldab teavet Aleksandria elanike ja ettevõtete kohta, pärineb aastast 1791 ning kataloogid käivad peaaegu pidevalt aastatel 1950–1980. Aastate kaupa kataloogides oleva teabe võrdlemine võib anda vihjeid kinnistu ehitamise kuupäeval. Neid ressursse saab kasutada ka omandatud funktsiooni funktsiooni ja selle omaniku nime tundmaõppimiseks. Alates 1924. aastast väljaannetes ilmuv kasulik funktsioon on ristandkataloog, mis asub iga köite tagaküljel. See loetleb atribuudid tänavate kaupa, võimaldades kasutajal määrata konkreetse aadressi omaniku või elaniku nime. Mõnel varasemal kataloogil on ainult ligikaudsed aadressid (nt Washingtoni kuninganna lähedal).

Need load hõlmavad 1890ndatest kuni 1920ndateni ning need annavad teavet selle kohta, milliseid muudatusi hoones tehti, millal muudatused tehti ja kes need tegi. Seal on indeks, mis loetleb load nii kinnisvara aadressi kui ka omaniku nime järgi, nii et lubasid saab kasutada ka konkreetse aadressi omaniku leidmiseks. Hilisemate kuupäevade load leiate Alexandria arhiivi- ja arhivaalikeskusest.

Ehitatud Ameerikas: Ameerika ajalooliste ehitiste uuring/Ameerika ajalooline insenerirekord 1933 - praeguseni.

See kollektsioon, mis on osa Kongressi Raamatukogu Ameerika mälu projektist, sisaldab pilte arhitektuurijoonistest, fotodest ja märkmetest mitme Aleksandria vara kohta. Kollektsiooni saab otsida märksõna järgi või sirvida teema või asukoha järgi.

Ajalooline Aleksandria, Virginia, tänav tänavalt: ülevaade varajastest hoonetest. - VA REF 917.55296 Cox

See raamat on korraldatud tänava järgi ja sisaldab fotosid ja kirjeldavat teavet suure hulga ajalooliste Aleksandria majade kohta, kus sageli mainitakse, millal maja ehitati, ja esitatakse üksikasju mõne omaniku kohta. Raamatus on teavet nii kuulsate kui ka vähemtuntud Aleksandria majade kohta. Coxi raamat on suurepärane koht uurimistöö alustamiseks.

Aleksandria majad 1750-1830-VA REF 975.5295 DAV

Autorid Deering Davis, Stephen P. Dorsey ja Ralph Cole Hall

Kuigi see raamat on üsna vana, sisaldab see fotosid ja teavet mitme Aleksandria maja ja hoone kohta, sealhulgas mõned, mida Coxi raamatust ei leia.

Alexandria veefirma load: esimesed 1000 "toru" - VA REF 975.5295 ERI

Philip M. Erickson, PhilipInformatsioon esimese 1000 Aleksandria hoone kohta, kus paigaldati voolavat vett. Luba hõlmab aastaid 1852–1922 ja kuigi mõned neist lubadest pärinevad enne tänavate numeratsioonisüsteemi muutmist, on kõik kinnistud identifitseeritud nende praeguse tänavanumbri järgi. Kinnistuid indekseeritakse neljal viisil: omaniku, elaniku, kuupäeva ja aadressi järgi. Mõnel kirjel on lisateavet, mis kirjeldab kinnistutel olevate hoonete olemust.

Ethelyn Coxi käsikirjade kogu -käsikirjade kogumikast 287

Majajahile pakuvad esmast huvi Coxi märkmed ja ajaloolise Aleksandria uurimistöö. Nende hulka kuulub teave allikate kohta, mida ta uuris, kirjavahetus ja raamatu teksti mustandid. Sarnaselt raamatule on ka sari tänava järgi korraldatud. Coxi kollektsioon sisaldab ka materjale, mis on seotud tema tööga ajaloolise Aleksandria fondiga. Abi leidmisega.

Ameerika ajalooliste hoonete uuringu joonised - kaardikogu kogumikud 21, 22, 23

Arhitektuursed joonised on saadaval mitmete vanalinna tuntumate ajalooliste kinnistute jaoks, sealhulgas Lloydi maja, Carlyle'i maja, lütseum ja Gadsby kõrts.

Hopkins 1877 Aleksandria atlas - mikrofilmide rull 00476 kaardikogu

See kaart, mis pärineb enne tänavate numeratsioonisüsteemi muutmist, võib olla abiks kinnistu vana stiili aadressi tuvastamisel.

Kes ehitas Aleksandria? Arhitektid Aleksandrias 1750-1900-VA REF 720,9755 MOR 1971

Selle raamatu majad ja muud hooned on paigutatud neid ehitanud arhitektide nimede järgi. On vaja teada kas arhitekti nime või maja aadressi, kuid raamat annab häid üksikasju selle kohta, millal majad ehitati, milliseid inimesi nad ehitasid ja mõnikord ka nende omanikke.

Fotokogud

Erinevad fotokogud sisaldavad palju pilte Aleksandria hoonetest. Erilist huvi pakub Coxi fotokogu, kus on väljatrükid ajaloolises Aleksandrias kasutatud fotodest. Leidmisabis on hoonete fotod koondatud tänavate kaupa.

Sanitaartehnilised load-käsikirjade kogumiskastid 46A-46J

Need load, mis hõlmavad aastaid 1936-1939, registreerivad majadesse voolava vee paigaldamise. Need sisaldavad teavet maja omaniku, maja tüübi kohta, milliseid parandusi kavatsetakse teha, kas maja on vana või uus, ning tööd teinud torumehe nime. Lube korraldatakse tänavanimede järgi, kõik sama tänava load on koondatud.

Alexandria, Virginia Town Lots 1749-1801, koos hoolekogu toimingutega 1749-1780-VA REF 929,3 Alexandria RIN

Autor: Constance K. Ring ja Wesley E. Pippenger

Kasutades Fairfaxi maakonna ja Aleksandria aktidest ja testamentidest saadud teavet, kirjeldatakse selles köites nende partiide ajalugu, kuhu Aleksandria linn algselt jagati. Autorid on esitanud kaardid, mis võimaldavad kasutajatel kindlaks teha, kus algsed partiid asusid. Abiks omanike nimede ja kuupäevade leidmisel, millal maa omanikku vahetas, vähem kasulik teave majade või muude ehitiste kohta, mida tavaliselt ei mainita.

Sanborni tulekindlustuskaardid - mikrofilmide reel 00121 kaardikogu

Need Aleksandria linna üksikasjalikud kaardid, mis on tänavatasandil ja näitavad kõiki hooneid, on suurepärane vahend konkreetse hoone ehitamise või lammutamise ligikaudse kuupäeva, selle funktsiooni ja selle ehitamiseks kasutatud materjalide määramiseks. 1885. aasta kaart kasutab algupärast tänavate numeratsioonisüsteemi. Mikrofilmis on kaheksa kaarti, mis pärinevad kõige varem aastast 1885, viimasel on värskendusi aastale 1958. Kaardikogu sisaldab ka 1931. aasta kaardi originaali, mida mikrofilmil ei ole.

Maksumaksja kätetöö: Aleksandria ajaloolised struktuurid võrgus

Pilte dokumentidest, mis olid seotud 1960. aastate lõpus ja 1970. aastate alguses läbi viidud kinnisvaramaksu erihindamisega, et dokumenteerida üle 6000 vanalinna ehitise. Esialgsed dokumendid on Alexandria linna arhiivide ja arhivaalide keskuses. Seda projekti rahastab Virginia raamatukogu 2001. aastal antud toetus. Projekti lõpuleviimiseks kulub kolm aastat ja kogu projekti kestel lisatakse omadusi.

Vertikaalsed failimaterjalid

Teabefailid, mis on seotud tavaliselt uuritud teemadega, sealhulgas materjalid linnaosade, tänavate ja ajalooliste omaduste kohta. Samuti sisaldavad vertikaalsed failid teavet ajaloolise Aleksandria fondi kohta, sealhulgas üksikasju nende majaplaatide programmi kohta. Vertikaalsete failide teemade loend on saadaval viitelauas.

II OSA

Selle jaotise materjalid on kõige kasulikumad uurijatele, kes on mõne I osa allikaga juba koostööd teinud või kellel on juba teavet uuritavate majade omanike kohta. Enamik neist allikatest on paigutatud kinnisvaraomaniku nime järgi, muutes selle teabe hädavajalikuks teadlastele, kes kavatsevad neid allikaid kasutada.

Alexandria City Records: teod 1783–1865 ja indeksid-mikrofilmide reel 00589

Teoraamatute mikrofilm koos originaalnimeindeksitega. Teod, mis võivad sisaldada üksikasju kinnisvara piiride või struktuuride kohta, on rühmitatud aastate kaupa.

Alexandria City Records: maaraamat ja isikliku vara maksude hindamine 1787-1855-mikrofilmide reel 00027

Need kuupäeva järgi korraldatud hinnangud annavad omaniku nime, vara kirjelduse, asukoha ja väärtuse. Nimeindeksit pole.

Alexandria City Records: Landbook 1787-90, 1795-1800-Mikrofilmide reel 00026

Need andmed annavad kinnisvara või hoonete enda kohta vähe üksikasju, kuid annavad teavet kinnisvara väärtuse kohta. Väärtuse kasv võib tähendada, et ehitati uus hoone või tehti muid parandusi. Kirjed on rühmitatud aastate kaupa ja seejärel korraldatakse omaniku perekonnanime esimese tähe järgi.

Alexandria City Records: kinnisvaramaksude nimekiri, 1. palat 1806 - mikrofilmide rull 00552

Kuigi need kirjed hindavad kinnisvara väärtust, ei anna need alati kinnistu asukohta. Mõned andmed annavad teavet vara kasutamise kohta. Indeksit pole ja kirjed ei paista olevat mingis kindlas järjekorras.

Alexandria City Records: Maksuraamat 1805 - mikrofilmide rull 00552

Näitab majade ja kruntide maksude arvutamise väärtust. Kirjed on rühmitatud nime järgi, sama tähega algavad perekonnanimed on koondatud.

Alexandria City Records: Tax Ledger for Business 1800 - mikrofilmide rull 00552

Need andmed annavad iga inimese maja ja/või krundi väärtuse. Kirjed on rühmitatud nime järgi, sama tähega algavad perekonnanimed on koondatud. Mikrofilmide rull 00552

Alexandria City Records: Tax Ledgers 1851-1899-Microfilm Reel 00027

Need pearaamatud annavad teavet majade ja kruntide väärtuse kohta. Algsed indeksid kuvatakse iga pearaamatu ees. Need rühmitavad inimesi perekonnanime järgi, sama algustähega algavad nimed on koondatud.

Alexandria City Records: maksudokument 1787 ja maksudokument 1789 - mikrofilmide rull 00481

Iga inimese vara väärtust hinnatakse, samas kui palju mainitakse, hoonete või majade kohta üksikasju ei anta. Korraldatud nime nr indeksi järgi.

Alexandria City Records: Ward I maksuraamat, 1804 - mikrofilmide rull 00479

Need maksuotsused näitavad mõnikord maksustatava vara asukohta. Mõnel kirjel on ka üksikasju mitme loo, kõrtsi litsentside jms majade lisamaksude kohta. Pearaamatu alguses on nimeindeks.

Alexandria City Records: testamendid, 1800-1867 ja indeks-mikrofilmide rull 00346

Mikrofilm originaal testamendi raamatutest, rühmitatud kuupäeva järgi. Teave on dokumenditi erinev, kuid testamendis võib arutada soovitud vara tüüpi, asukohta või väärtust. Igal köitel on individuaalne nimeindeks ja üldine nimeindeks hõlmab ka kogu testamendirühma.

Aleksandria ringkonnakohtu sekretär

Kohtul on 1800ndatest pärit indeksid ja maaregistrid. Nende veebisaidil on teavet nende tundide ja tasude kohta.

Fairfaxi maakond: indeks tegudele 1742-1866-mikrofilmide rull 00030

Mikrofilm algsetest indeksitest, mis jagati kolme rühma: 1742-1797, 1797-1841 ja 1842-1866. Kõik kolm jaotist rühmitavad selles struktuuris sama tähega algavaid perekonnanimesid, teine ​​ja kolmas jagu sama tähega algavaid eesnimesid. Algsed teod asuvad Fairfaxi maakonna arhiivis.

Käsikirjalised kogud

Üksikasju majade või kinnisvara kohta leiate nende omanike isiklikest paberitest. Kui omaniku või perekonna nimi on teada, võib leida käsikirjalisi materjale, mis annavad maja kohta rohkem teavet. Käsikirjakogudel on teemaindeks ja abivahendeid leidub ka paljudele kogudele.

Alexandria Hustings'i kohtuaktid 1783-1797 ja Alexandria Hustings'i kohtuaktid 1797-1801-VA REF 929,3 Alexandria MUN

Need väljavõtted aktiraamatutest on indekseeritud nime, teema ja koha järgi, kuid mitte tänava järgi. Nad annavad teavet vara üldise asukoha kohta, kui akt kirjutati, kui palju raha oli kaasatud, ja asjaosaliste nimed.

Vastastikuse kindlustamise tuleettevõtte andmed - VA REF 368.11 MUT

Tulekindlustuse andmed, mis sisaldavad teavet kindlustatud hoonete olemuse ja väärtuse kohta. On nii uusi eeskirju kui ka uuendusi, mis tähendab, et sama vara jaoks võib olla mitu kirjet. Kirjed, mis sisaldavad poliise aastatest 1796-1860, on paigutatud kindlustusvõtja nime järgi ja on indekseeritud.

Põhja -Virginia telefoniraamatud

Raamatukogus on väike, mittetäielik kohalike telefoniraamatute kogu, mis sisaldab 1970., 1980. ja 1990. aastate raamatuid. Telefoniraamatud on kasulikud hoone hiljutise ajaloo jälgimiseks.

Alexandria linna ja Virginia maakonna teoraamatu väljavõtted kd. I 1801-1818-VA REF 929.3 Alexandria WAR

Need dokumendid kirjeldavad aktide andmist ja üleandmist. Neid indekseeritakse ainult nime järgi ja nad arutavad asjaosalisi, kuupäeva ja teo liiki, kus nad ei maini, kus kõnealune vara asub. Konkreetse kinnisvara kohta teabe tuvastamiseks oleks vaja teada ühe poole nime ja ligikaudset kuupäeva, millal tehing võis toimuda.


Aleksandria ja aposide ajalugu

Aleksandria ja apossi ajalugu ulatub rohkem kui 13 000 aasta taha. Alates esimestest põlisameeriklastest, kes siia asusid, kuni tänapäeva elava linnani, on Aleksandria ja apossi ajaloo ajaskaala täis sündmusi, mis aitasid Ameerika Ühendriikidest kujundada praeguseks riigiks.

Aleksandria asutasid 1749. aastal Šoti kaupmehed ja sai nime šotlase John Aleksandri järgi. Aleksandria on tuntud kui Ameerika kodulinn ja esimene president George Washington. Teismelisena uuris George Washington linna. Hiljem omas ta siin vanalinnas linnamaja. Näete linnamaja koopiat täna Cameroni tänaval. Ta kummardas ka Kristuse kirikus (saate tutvuda saidiga ja istuda tema pingil ja nr 60) ning külastas sageli Gadsby kõrtsi.

Aleksandria ja Ameerika Ühendriikide õitseng oli lahutamatult seotud orjastatud ja vabade Aafrika ameeriklaste tööga. Kohutav osa Aleksandria ajaloost on see, et enne Ameerika ja#x2019 kodusõda oli Aleksandria üks Ameerika suurimaid orjakauplemise sadamaid. Enamik Aleksandria juhtivatest ettevõtetest ja kinnistutest ei oleks saanud tegutseda ilma siin elanud ja töötanud orjastatud meeste, naiste ja laste palgatööta.

Kuid Aleksandria tänavatel kõndimine tähendab Ameerika ja Aafrika-Ameerika ajaloo ajaskaala läbimist koloniaal-ajast kuni kodusõjani ja kodanikuõigustest tänapäevani. Linna ajaloolisi paiku uurides ja Manumission Tour Company jalutuskäikudel osaledes saate õppida mõjuvõimu tekitavaid lugusid üksikisikutest ja kogukondadest, kes ületasid ebaõnne ja isegi tõstsid meie ühiskonda edasi.

Parim viis Aleksandria ajalooga tutvumiseks on osta linna vaatamisväärsuste passi võti. Uurige 9 ajaloolist paika 20 dollari eest ja saate 40% soodsamalt sissepääsu George Washingtoni ja#Vernoni mäele, Hornbloweri Potomaci jõelaevakompaniile ja kõrgele laevale Providence.

Samuti on palju reisifirmasid, kes pakuvad põhjalikku ülevaadet Aleksandria ajaloost. Alates jalgsimatkadest kuni paadimatkadeni kuni jalgrattamatkadeni - sukelduge Aleksandria ja#x2019 ajalukku. Kas soovite oma seikluse ise valida? Jälgige meie   isejuhitud ekskursioone ja#xA0 vanalinnas, Aleksandrias ja#x2019s ning#xA0Aafrika-Ameerika ajalugu, Vernoni mäge ja palju muud.


Patchi reaalajas värskenduste abil saate teada, mis toimub Suur-Aleksandrias.

"Peaaegu igaüks, kes oli kohalik inimene, sattus mingil hetkel oma elus Dixie Pigisse," ütles ta. "See oli kogunemiskoht."

"Kaebusi pole," lisas Bill D'Andrea. "See oli parim grill, mida kuhugi saada sai."

Bill D'Andrea ütles, et Dixie Pigi vastas oli lennujaam. "Mõnikord oleks see hirmutav," ütles ta. "Sa sõidaksid sinna ja siin tuleb lennuk üle maantee, peaaegu käeulatuses."

Ta ütles, et lähedal oli ka teine ​​lennujaam, kus Mount Vernon Plaza täna asub.

Jack Townes Fort Huntist, endine lendur, on elanud Route 1 piirkonnas 43 aastat. McDonald'sis naudib ta meisterdamist paberist lennukeid, mis on pandud lastele lastele kinkimiseks. Ta mäletab vana Zayre'i poodi ja varaste poodi Thieves Market.

"Olen näinud kogu Hybla oru muutumist," ütles ta. "... Ma nägin just asjade arengut."

Kaugemate kohtade hulka kuuluvad sissesõidukino ja Buckman Roadi lähedal asuv Twin Barreli bensiinijaam. Kunagi oli King's Highway ja Route 1 ristmiku lähedal restoran, millel oli suur põdrapea, ütles Bill D'Andrea. "Kui arve tasusite, helistasid nad registrisse ja põdra silmad särasid ja vilkusid," ütles ta.

Teine lemmik oli Thompsoni nurk. D'Andrea meenutas, kuidas härra Thompson oli "kena kõigi vastu" ja serveeris inimestele kogu kana, mida nad restoranis süüa tahtsid.

Mitte kõik mälestused ei sära. Myers ütles, et mäletab aegu, mil noored, paljud Fort Belvoirist, põhjustasid purjuspäi juhtimise tõttu surmaga lõppenud õnnetusi. Bill D'Andrea mäletab, et reis Durani autoteenindusse maksis sageli päris senti.

"Iga auto, mis sisse tuli, vajas esitulede reguleerimist, edasi ja edasi ja edasi," ütles ta. "Ja tal oli võimalus tuuleklaase lihvida, kui need olid kriimustatud, ja kõik pidid selle tegema."

Myers meenutas, et suur haagislaager oli kunagi Eisenhoweri avenüü lähedal Telegraph Roadi ääres. "Läbi selle kulges üherealine maantee ja seal, kus oli raudtee, oli üherealine sild," ütles ta. "Ja nii, kui te läbi sõitsite, pidi liiklus seisma jääma, kuni auto sel teel läks, ja siis pidi liiklus seisma jääma, kui auto nii läks." Eisenhoweri läänepoolsel küljel asus suur prügimägi.

Siis on McDonald's ise. Bill D'Andrea ütles, et see algas väikese ruudukujulise hoonena, kus pakuti ainult väljavõtmisteenust. Seejärel laienes see piirkonda, kus inimesed said vihma korral oodata. Kui lisandus söögituba, oli hoone umbes poole väiksem kui praegu. Söögitoa tala näitab, kus oli algne sein.

McDonald'sis kogunenud grupp oli varem suurem, kümmekond inimest. Täna ilmub hommikul umbes kuus.

"Oma vanuse ja kõigi tõttu oleme kaotanud peaaegu poole oma rühmast," ütles Myers. "Kõik on surnud. Oleme vanem kamp inimesi."

Bill D'Andrea lisas naerdes: "Neil on närv ära minna."

Kuid seni, kuni need vanad inimesed hommikusöögiks kokku saavad, hoitakse 1. marsruudi ajalugu elus ja hästi.


Sisu

Varajane ajalugu Redigeeri

Arheoloogide hinnangul hakkasid järjest põlisrahvad hõivama Chesapeake'i ja Tidewateri piirkonda umbes 3000–10 000 aastat tagasi. Potomaci jõe kuivenduspiirkonna maad on alates 14. sajandi algusest asustanud mitmesugused algonki keelt kõnelevate rahvaste hõimud. [9]

Suvel 1608 uuris inglise asunik John Smith Potomaci jõge ja puutus kokku Patawomeckiga (kes oli lõdvalt seotud Powhataniga) ja Doegi hõimudega, kes elasid Virginia poolel, samuti Theodore Roosevelti saarel ja Piscatawayga ( tuntud ka kui Conoy), kes elas Marylandi poolel. [10] Sellel visiidil registreeris Smith asula nimega Assaomeck praeguse Hunting Creeki lõunakalda lähedal. [11]

Kolooniaaeg Muuda

21. oktoobril 1669 andis patent Robert Howsingile 6000 aakrit (24 km 2) 120 inimese transportimise eest Virginia kolooniasse. [12]: 5 Sellest traktist sai hiljem Aleksandria linn. [12]: 5 Virginia 1730. aasta põhjalik tubakainspektsiooni seadus kohustas kogu koloonias kasvatatud tubakat enne müüki kontrollimiseks viima kohalikult määratud avalikku lattu. Üks Potomaci jõe ülaosas asuva lao jaoks mõeldud koht oli Hunting Creeki suudmes. [13] Kuid maapind osutus ebasobivaks ja ladu ehitati pool miili üles jõkke, kus vesi oli kalda lähedal sügav.

Pärast seda, kui 1745. aastal lahendati Virginia 10-aastane vaidlus Lord Fairfaxiga Põhjakaela omandiõiguse läänepiiri üle, kui Londoni Privy Council leidis Lord Fairfaxi laiendatud nõude kasuks, moodustasid mõned Fairfaxi maakonna aadlikud Ohio ettevõtte Virginia. Nad kavatsesid kaubelda Ameerika sisemusse ja nad vajasid Potomaci navigatsioonipea lähedal asuvat kaubanduskeskust. Parim asukoht oli Hunting Creeki tubakaladu, kuna sügav vesi mahutas hõlpsalt purjelaevu. Paljud kohalikud tubakakasvatajad tahtsid aga uut linna Hunting Creeki kõrgemale, jõeäärsetest ebaproduktiivsetest põldudest kaugemale. [14]

Umbes 1746. aastal kolis kapten Philip Aleksander II (1704–1753) Aleksandrias praegusest Duke Streetist lõunasse. Tema kinnisvara, mis koosnes 500 aakrist (2,0 km 2), piirasid Hunting Creek, Hooffi jooks, Potomaci jõgi ja umbes joon, millest sai Cameroni tänav. Virginia 1748–49 seadusandliku istungjärgu avamisel esitati 1. novembril 1748 Burgessesi kojas petitsioon, et "Fairfaxi (Co) elanikud palvetavad linna rajamise eest Potowmacki Hunting Creeki laohoonesse" River ", kuna Hugh West oli lao omanik. Petitsiooni esitas Fairfaxi maakonna esindaja Lawrence Washington (1718–1752) ja, mis veelgi olulisem, William Fairfaxi väimees ja Ohio Company asutajaliige. Ettevõtte jõupingutuste toetamiseks jõe ääres asuva linna jaoks tegi Lawrence'i noorem vend George Washington, ambitsioonikas maamõõtja, eskiisi rannajoonest, näidates ära tubakalao eelised. [15]

Kuna jõeala asus tema valduses, oli Philip sellele ideele vastu ja pooldas tungivalt Hunting Creeki (tuntud ka kui Great Hunting Creek) eesotsas asuvat ala. On öeldud, et raskuste vältimiseks pakkusid petitsiooni esitajad uuele linnale nime Aleksandria, Philipi perekonna auks. Selle tulemusena andsid Philip ja tema nõbu kapten John Alexander (1711–1763) maad Aleksandria arengule kaasa aitamiseks ning on seega asutajate nimekirjas. See Johannes oli Robert Aleksander II (1688–1735) poeg. 2. mail 1749 kinnitas Burgessesi koda jõe asukoha ja andis korralduse: "Härra Washington läheb üles sõnumiga nõukogule ja tutvustab neile, et see koda on nõustunud muudatustega pealkirjaga" Seadus linna püstitamiseks Hunting Creeki äärde " Laos, Fairfaxi maakonnas. " [16] Juulikuuks kuulutati välja "Public Vendue" (oksjon) ning maakonna geodees pani paika tänavarajad ja linnaosad. Oksjon viidi läbi 13. – 14. Juulil 1749.

Peaaegu kohe pärast asutamist nimetasid linna asutajad uut linna "Belhaveniks", mida arvati Šoti patrioodi John Hamiltoni, 2. lord Belhaveni ja Stentoni auks, kusjuures Põhjakaela tubakakaubandust domineerisid siis šotlased. Nime Belhaven kasutati ametlikel loteriidel kiriku- ja turumaja jaoks raha kogumiseks, kuid seadusandja ei kiitnud seda kunagi heaks ning see langes 1750. aastate keskel soosingust välja. [17] Aleksandria linn liideti alles 1779. aastal.

Aastal 1755 korraldas kindral Edward Braddock Aleksandrias Carlyle'i majas oma saatusliku ekspeditsiooni Fort Duquesne'i vastu. Aprillis 1755 kohtusid Virginia ja Marylandi, Pennsylvania, Massachusettsi ja New Yorgi provintside kubernerid, et otsustada kooskõlastatud tegevuse üle prantslaste vastu Ameerikas. [18]

Märtsis 1785 kohtusid Alexandrias Virginia ja Marylandi volinikud, et arutada kahe osariigi ärisuhteid, lõpetades oma tegevuse Mount Vernonis. Mount Vernoni konverents lõppes 28. märtsil kokkuleppega Potomaci jõe kaubandus- ja meresõiduvabaduse kohta. Marylandi seadusandja tegi selle lepingu ratifitseerimisel 22. novembril ettepaneku kõigi osariikide esindajate konverentsiks, et kaaluda kindlate kaubandusreeglite vastuvõtmist. Selle tulemusel kutsuti kokku 1786. aasta Annapolise konventsioon, mis omakorda kutsus kokku 1787. aasta föderaalse konventsiooni. [18]

1791. aastal lülitati Aleksandria George Washingtoni valitud piirkonda Columbia ringkonnaks.

19. sajandi alguses Edit

1814. aastal, 1812. aasta sõja ajal, alustas Briti laevastik edukat reidi Aleksandrias, mis alistus võitluseta. Nagu alistumistingimustes kokku lepitud, rüüstasid britid peamiselt jahu, tubaka, puuvilla, veini ja suhkru kauplusi ja ladu. [19] Aastal 1823 asutasid William Holland Wilmer, Francis Scott Key ja teised Virginia teoloogilise seminari. [20]: 116 Aastatel 1828–1836 [21] elas Aleksandrias riigi üks suurimaid orjakaubandusettevõtteid Franklin & amp; Armfield Slave Market. 1830. aastateks saatsid nad igal aastal Aleksandriast üle 1000 orja oma Natchezi, Mississippi, New Orleansi ja hiljem Texase turgudele, et aidata rahuldada nõudlust orjade järele Mississippi ja selle lähedal asuvates osariikides. [22] Hiljem Priceile, Birch & amp Co -le kuulunud orjapliiatsist sai liidu okupatsiooni ajal vangla. [23]


Lugege Aleksandria VA ajaloost

Alexandria, VA võlgneb linna tõusmise peamiselt selle veepiirile, mis oli kaupmeeste ja põllumeeste jaoks atraktiivne. Euroopa asunikud, kes olid peamiselt huvitatud tubakakaubandusest, muutsid Aleksandria suureks sadamaks, mis muutis selle kodusõja ajal ka huvipakkuvaks territooriumiks ja põhjustas selle tõsiseid kahjustusi. Linn oli omal ajal osa Columbia rajoonist, kuid viidi lõpuks tagasi Virginiasse, kus see on siiani säilinud.

Native American Times

Aleksandrial on ajalugu, mis pärineb põlisameeriklaste aegadest, kes lahkusid mööda Potomaci jõge, millest nad sõltusid kala värske vee ja jahipidamise tõttu. Hiljem tulid Euroopa asukad, kes rajasid suurima orjaturu ja seejärel Ameerika kümne parima sadama vahel, kaubeldes tubakaga ja hiljem suurima vabade mustanahaliste elanikkonnaga.

Indiaanlaste asundus

Enne Euroopa asustamist Alexandria VA -s elanud Ameerika põliselanike kohta pole palju dokumente, kuid arheoloogilised leiud võivad kinnitada, et jõe ääres elasid Conoy Chiefdomile kuuluvad rühmitused. Mõned avastatud esemed tuvastavad mõned rühmad kui Tauxenents ja Nacotchtanks. Andmed John Smithi piki jõge rändamise kohta näitavad, et ta paaritub mõne jõe ääres elava grupiga.

Euroopa asustus

Praeguse Aleksandria kinkis 1669. aastal Virginia kuberner inglise kaptenile Robert Howsonile pärast seda, kui ta oli toonud Virginiasse elama 120 inimest. Howson was awarded 6000 acres of land, by authority of the King of England, but being a ship captain, land was probably not a priority to him so he sold the same land to John Alexander for 6000 pounds of tobacco, only a month after he was awarded the land.

Tootmine

This land became a big producer of tobacco and the port was busy with the transportation of tobacco. Naturally this attracted more settlers to the land along the river but many of them settled farther inland where they discovered the land was good for the production of corn and wheat.

In 1732

There was a Tobacco warehouse established along the Potomac river and this increased the interest in the land. Scottish and English merchants took particular interest in the land and petitioned the Virginia General Assembly to establish a town at the West Hunting Creek Warehouse. In 1749, the town of Alexandria was formed and named in honor of John Alexander who bought the land from Captain Robert Howson.
Later according to tradition, the land was surveyed and it is worth noting that one of the assistant surveyors at the time was a 17 year old George Washington who later on became President of America.

Major Trade in Alexandria

Alexandria proceeded to become even busier than before as a major port for trade and many large ships would dock there. British troops also used the town as a staging area during the French and Indian war.

Before the civil war

Alexandria also became a major slave market as ships from Africa would dock here and then the salves would be auctioned to go and work in huge farms of tobacco and other crops.
Later when the slaves were freed, Alexandria became their home and many runaway slaves also sought refuge in Alexandria.
Alexandria continued to go through a number of events including the civil war which destroyed a great part of the city.
After the civil war, Alexandria like the rest of America underwent industrial revolution which helped to rebuild the town.
It has continued to grow ever since then and a lot of its history can be found in the museums.


History of Alexandria, Virginia - History

History of Alexandria
The story of Alexandria reads like a Who’s Who of American History. George Washington, George Mason, and Robert E. Lee are just a few famous Americans who had a hand in the heritage of a city that owes its founding to hard-working Scottish merchants.

In 1669, Scotsman John Alexander purchased the land of present-day Alexandria from an English ship captain for "six thousand punds of tobacco and cask."

In November 1748, three Scottish settlers, William Ramsay, John Carlyle and John Pagan, sailed up the Potomac River from Dumfries, Virginia, to look for a better trading port. They chose a site about four miles north of the creek at the public tobacco warehouses on West's Point, and petitioned the House of Burgesses to establish a town at the location.

They sought the creation of a port to facilitate the shipping and trade of tobacco and other crops between the colony and Europe and England. The petition was accepted and in May of 1749, Governor Gooch signed the bill establishing the new town. It was to be called Alexandria, in honor of the Scottish Alexander family on whose land it would rise. A few months later, lots were surveyed and auctioned off on a sultry two days, July 13-14, 1749. The main thoroughfares through the new community became Fairfax Street and Cameron Street. Thus began Alexandria's 250-year history.

At the time of the Revolution, Alexandria was one of the principal Colonial trading centers and ports. Alexandria's political, social, and commercial interests were of great importance to many local residents, including George Washington in neighboring Mount Vernon. Washington maintained a town house in Alexandria and served as a Trustee. He also purchased a pew in Christ Church.

In 1789, Alexandria and a portion of Fairfax County were ceded by the State of Virginia to become a part of the newly created 10-mile-square District of Columbia. Formally accepted by Congress in 1801, Alexandria remained under the aegis of the new federal government until it was retroceded to Virginia in 1847.

From their earliest days, Alexandrians have known war. George Washington drilled militia troops at Market Square in 1754, and the town served as a supply and hospital center during the Revolutionary conflict. Captured and held for ransom by the British during the War of 1812, Alexandria's warehouses were plundered by the enemy.

"Light Horse Harry" Lee, a Revolutionary War general, and the father of Robert E. Lee, brought his family to Alexandria in 1810. Robert lived in Alexandria until his departure for West Point in June, 1825. In the antebellum years, industry grew and flourished and shipping through the Alexandria Canal was prosperous.

During the Civil War, the City was immediately occupied by the Union military forces on May 24, 1861, and became a logistical supply center for the Federal army. Troops and supplies were transported to Alexandria via the port and the railroad and then dispersed where needed at the front. Wounded soldiers, brought back on the trains, crowded the available hospitals and temporary medical facilities in and around the town. It was during this era that several forts were constructed in Alexandria as a part of the defenses of Washington.

Alexandria remained a sleepy Southern town into the 20th century.

To protect its historic resources, Alexandria created an "old and historic district" in 1946. Modeled after Charleston, South Carolina's preservation ordinance, Alexandria's law created the third such historic district in the county. Alexandria increased its historic preservation and urban renewal projects in the 1960s, achieved through the cooperation of citizen activists and local government.

One prime example is the Torpedo Factory. Built during World War I, it served as a United States munitions factory. Before its renovation in the late 1970s and early 1980s, its heavy industrial buildings dominated Alexandria's waterfront. Today, it serves as the Torpedo Factory Art Center and is an award winning example of adaptive reuse and the centerpiece of a lively waterfront with a marina, shops, public parks and walkways, restaurants, homes and businesses.

Alexandria is a popular tourist destination in the greater Washington, DC area. This year marks the 250th anniversary of the founding of the town. It retains it's charm, atmosphere and uniqueness. And, sometimes, late at night, underneath the flickering gaslamps shining over quaint cobblestone alleyways, you can still hear the echoes of Colonial times, from the resonating announcements of the town crier to the clip-clop of horses' hooves of messengers delivering the latest news of the Revolution.

But how did Alexandria get its start? The answer to that question lies with the Scots. I will focus primarily on John Carlyle, and to a lesser extent, William Ramsay, to exemplify the Scottish role in Alexandria's birth and development. I will also highlight the tangible links to Alexandria's Scottish heritage that exist today in the form of historic sites and annual events. First, however, lets examine the life of one of the primary Scottish founders, John Carlyle.

John Carlyle

John Carlyle was born in Dumfrieshire, Scotland, on February 6, 1720. At age 20, seeking to make a career in business, he emigrated to Dumfries, Virginia. in 1749, along with other fellow Scottish merchants, he petitioned the House of Burgesses to establish a town 30 miles north of Dumfries. The House did, and Alexandria was born. Carlyle bought two lots during the land auction in July 1749 and served as one of the first Trustees.

Carlyle purchased the choicest real estate: two adjacent lots in the center of town: one on the waterfront and the other across the street from the public square. Both lots were situated on the main thoroughfares of Alexandria, Fairfax and Cameron streets.

Along with a growing successful business, Carlyle sought domestic tranquility. On December 31, 1747, he married Sarah Fairfax, daughter of Colonel William Fairfax of Belvoir, and sister of Lawrence Washington's wife, Anne. Three weeks after the marriage, on January 25, 1748, he wrote Sarah's brother asking for permission to marry her - and to attempt an explanation as to why he had to marry her without permission. "She. had many other offers [from] men of very considerable fortunes that I thought delays might be dangerous. As I really loved her. the 31st of December I was made happy . without waiting for your approbation."

One of the dominant themes of Carlyle's correspondence was his decision to live in the new world. It is mentioned in nearly half of his letters from 1745 to 1769. He decided early on, and repeatedly thereafter, that the economic opportunity of the new world was far greater than he would have enjoyed in England. In the end, his wish to see Scotland again was always identified with his loneliness for family. He tried to raise a family of his own, perhaps to alleviate some of the homesickness he felt, but success in this endeavor eluded him as much as success in business blessed him.

His first two children died shortly after birth. On the death of Ann, his second child, in the spring of 1752, Carlyle said, "My loss is very great. I am so very fond of other people's children and much more of my own." While he was trying to start a family, he also began the construction of his home in 1752.

Carlyle took a conspicuously different approach to building his home. He would build a large residence of special design: a country house in town. Not uncommon in his native Scotland, here his 2 1/2 stories set well back from the street would be unique. The houses' massive stone walls and red roof loomed above those of the surrounding houses, which were constructed of wood, 1 or 1 1/2 stories high, and built right on the street. Carlyle also decided to build in stone, the material of choice in his native Scotland.

He chose the setting, placement and style of his new home to make a strong statement. It was one of balance and geometry, of self-sufficiency and control. There was both a reservation of privacy and a bold, public individualism. Also, Carlyle was a man who wanted to be seen. Because of its location on the main thoroughfare, most traffic arriving and departing the town would have to pass John Carlyle's house.

The building of the house was not without its hardships, however. In a letter written on November 12, 1752, Carlyle mentions the difficulties of building his house, some feelings which I'm sure many of us can relate to. "I am now out of hopes of getting into my house this winter. If I had suspected it would have been what [trouble] I have met with, I believe I should have made shift with a very small house." We in Alexandria are glad he persisted.

With his new house, John Carlyle had himself achieved the status of Gentleman in the properties he owned, the offices he held, the style in which he lived, and the company he kept. It is not surprising he would express this in a house set somewhat apart.

When Carlyle moved into his new Alexandria home in August 1753, he wrote happily to his brother George that Sarah gave birth to a boy on the evening of August 1st - the very day they had at last moved into their house. Altogether it was, he said, "A fine beginning." Unfortunately, their elation was short lived, for only a few months later, in November, the boy died.

Outside of Carlyle's private life, there were other problems facing all of Virginia and the other Colonies. War was looming on the horizon. Problems between the British and the French and Indians were beginning to heat up. England dispatched Gen. Edward Braddock to Virginia to deal with the crisis. In April 1755, Gen. Braddock chose the Carlyle House as his headquarters in Alexandria. To plan a strategy, Braddock called a meeting of the Colonial governors to meet in Alexandria.

On April 13, 1755, the governors arrived: William Shirley of Massachusetts, James DeLancey of New York, Robert Hunter Morris of Pennsylvania and Horatio Sharpe of Maryland. The next day, Virginia's Governor Dinwiddie joined them. They met in the elegant Blue Room. The funding of British military campaigns in North America against the French and Indian forces was the prime topic of discussion.

More important than anything coming out of the Carlyle House council was the fact of the gathering itself. It was the first of its kind in America. In a letter to his brother, John Carlyle was quite correct when he termed the Council the "Grandest Congress. ever known on this Continent." As the twentieth century historian Ross Netherton judges it: "Never before had such an influential group of leaders gathered, face to face, to plan such a grand strategy. One would have to wait twenty years to see another so grand in its participants, objectives, or results - in 1775, in Philadelphia, at Independence Hall."

Perhaps as a consolation for the use of his home as headquarters, Carlyle was appointed commissary and paymaster for Braddock's entire British expeditionary force. On his appointment, Carlyle states: "The Governor. has appointed me Commissary and Paymaster to the Regiment. The post is attended with great with great trouble and fatigue and care, though little risk and the profit makes up for the fatigue." Later, however, whatever enthusiasm he felt, waned: "[My post as] Commissary. and Paymaster. is the most troublesome one I ever had. & quot

The entire military entourage numbered over 1,000 all of whom had been cooped up in transport ships during a long and frequently turbulent voyage from Ireland. After the troops' arrival, it only took one day for Gen. Braddock to be forced to issue orders addressing the unruly behavior of the men. As his Aide-de-Camp Lt. Robert Orme reported: "The General was very impatient to remove the troops from Alexandria, as the greatest care and severest punishments could not prevent the immoderate use of spirituous liquors. & quot

Along with disruptions to the residents of the burgeoning town, there must have been a considerable disruption of the Carlyle's household during the time. And Carlyle did not grow fond of Braddock. "The Generall & his Aid de Camps, Secretary & Servants Lodged with Me, he took everything he wanted, abused my home, & furniture, & made me little or No Satisfaction, tho Expressed a Great deal of Friendship for me. " Certainly Gen. Braddock achieved no successes in the field of Scottish-English relations.

On April 20 the campaign began and Braddock's expeditionary force marched westward, as Carlyle stated, "to our Great joy." Carlyle remained in Alexandria to attend to his official duties and it's probably good that he did. On July 9, Braddock and his men were marching though the dense woods after leaving Fort Necessity on the forks of the Ohio River. While still in the forest and formed in a long column, they suddenly stumbled into a body of French and Indians. Both sides were surprised, but the French and Indians reacted quicker and began to effectively cut up the British. For the British, unable to maneuver by column into line and with little training in fighting as individuals, the day was a disaster. A young Washington organized a withdrawal. Braddock, however, fell mortally wounded and died five days later. He was buried in the line of march to conceal the grave's location and to prevent the enemy from desecrating the body. Carlyle called the disaster ". the most remarkable Drubing that we have In history." He later states that "the British Soldiers [were] Seased with Such a Panick At the Indian Method of fighting, that they are determined to Go into Winter Quarters in July. " and then notes in paranthesis with a touch of Scottish sarcasam, "(brave English Men). & quot

Back in Alexandria, John Carlyle fell gravely ill, probably with scarlet fever, and was forced to resign as commissary and paymaster. After recovering, he returned to the building of his estate and family, but those areas were as filled with hardships as his other endeavors.

Carlyle had four more children between July 1755 and January 1761, only one of which, Ann, his seventh, survived. It might have been cause for celebration, if not for the fact that Sarah, his wife, died from complications of the childbirth the following day. Carlyle married Sybil West later that same year on December 22. Unfortunately, the pattern established with his first wife continued. The first two children of Carlyle and his second wife, Sybil, both died in infancy, the second dying after only four days. Then, on May 27, 1766, Sybil gave birth to a son, George, who survived. George, however, would not live to manhood, as he was killed in the Battle of Eutaw Springs in 1781 at the age of 15. A little less than three years later, on March 7, 1769, while giving birth to their fourth child, Sybil also died in childbirth. It was indeed a tough time for Carlyle, as he wrote in a letter on December 12, 1769: "I live a disagreeable life and keep little company. Death has been very common in my house since Mrs. Carlyle was taken from me."

Carlyle did have his daughter, Ann Fairfax, however, to comfort him. She married Henry Whiting in October 1775. That daughter Ann Whiting, however, died in childbirth on March 21, 1778.

During his last years, John Carlyle continued with his many merchant and business interests. He died in September 1780 and was buried in the churchyard of the Presbyterian Meeting House, a church that he built six years earlier in 1774.

The Carlyle House
After John Carlyle's death, his house went through many owners and uses. In 1855, a four-story hotel was built immediately in front of the Carlyle House. Although still visible from Lee Street behind it, the house now vanished from Fairfax Street. It also began to deteriorate. In 1887, a visitor wrote: "the Carlyle House. stands, doors wide open. a deserted, dismantled, dilapidated house, the plaster loosened from the ceilings and the rats its only inhabitants." The hotel and house were converted into apartments before one owner decided to refurbish it and turn it into a museum around the time of World War I. Attempting to overcome the downtown blight which afflicted so many cities, Alexandria began a sweeping program of urban renewal in the 1960s. Although the early stages featured the destruction of many Colonial era buildings, other sites were chosen to be preserved instead of demolished and rebuilt. The Carlyle House was one of them. The site was to be turned into an open space, a public park that would add greenery to downtown rather than a block of stores behind a brand new "colonial" fa ade. The hotel in front of the Carlyle House was torn down in 1973 and the house was restored. It opened in 1976 in time for the nation's bicentennial. Today, it exists as a museum and offers a fine example of an 18th century home, complete with many of Carlyle's furnishings. Visitors can once again stand in the majestic blue room where Carlyle stated, the "Grandest Congress. ever known on this Continent" met. The Carlyle House is open every day except Monday with guided tours every half-hour.

Another site that exists today that is linked to one of the Scottish founders is William Ramsay's House.

Ramsay House, home of William Ramsay

Known as the Romulus of Alexandria, William Ramsay was another of the influential Scots that played a key role in the creation and development of the town. He was born in 1716 in Galloway, Scotland. He emigrated to Dumfries, Virginia, on the Potomac River in 1742. He was, along with John Carlyle, one of the major proponents to establishing a town in the area that became Alexandria. He became one of the first trustees and purchased several lots at the first public auction.

According to tradition, Ramsay barged a small clapboard house, constructed in 1724 in Dumfries, up the Potomac River and placed it on his lot, number 47. It is thought that he placed the house facing toward the river so he could watch his trading vessels sail in and out of the harbor. There is another tradition that I have not found any evidence to support, but it states that Ramsay was a very competitive person and sought to be the first person to have a house in the new town. Hence, the barge method.

After establishing himself, he engaged in the export-import trade and did very well. He was good friends with George Washington, who was a frequent visitor to his home. His wife, Ann McCarty, a cousin of George Washington through his mother's family, conducted fund-raising campaigns totaling $75,812 for Washington's forces in the Revolutionary War. She was appointed treasurer of Alexandria and Fairfax County for the fund raising effort. Thomas Jefferson praised her efforts by saying, "that the amount collected was large and greatly to her credit, and let us give her all due honor for that work. & quot

William Ramsay served Alexandria as a public servant for some 36 years as a town trustee, census taker and member of the Committee of Safety. He was one of the first merchants to build wharves in front of the town. On St. Andrew's Day in 1761, the citizens of Alexandria voted Ramsay the first and only Lord Mayor of Alexandria, a largely honorary title. The ceremony was not without its fanfare. It was described by the Maryland Gazette as including "a grand procession. with drums, trumpets, a band of music and colors flying. In the evening a ball was given at which. [a] . brilliant company of ladies danced. The night concluded with bounties, illuminations and other demonstrations."

Ramsay died in 1785, at the age of 69. His friend, George Washington, walked in his funeral and attended his burial at Christ Church.

The Alexandria City Council, in anticipation of the 200th Anniversary of the City in 1949, purchased the Ramsay House for restoration and conversion to a public museum. Now, it serves as the City's Visitors Center and my office. It is open every day 9 a..m. to 5 p.m. except Christmas Day and New Years Day. A guided walking tour of Old Town Alexandria leaves every day from the Ramsay House garden at noon.

Another building which stands today as a monument to the Scottish founders is the Old Presbyterian Meeting House.

Old Presbyterian Meeting House

The Old Presbyterian Meeting House was built by John Carlyle in 1774. When Washington died, Dr. James Craik, his doctor, gave instructions to toll the bell in the steeple, the only church bell in Alexandria at the time. It tolled until the burial at Mount Vernon took place four days later. It was the site of the Masonic memorial service for Washington on December 27, 1799. This year, on December 29, 1999 there will be a reenactment this service at the Old Presbyterian Meeting House. It will feature Colonial music and attire and the original service delivered by Rev. Dr. James Muir, a friend of George Washington.

A small graveyard in back of the church contains the graves of many of Alexandria's prominent citizens including John Carlyle and his first wife Sarah, Colonel Dennis Ramsay, son of William Ramsay, Dr. James Craik, Washington's physician, and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier of the Revolutionary War.

Alexandria celebrates its rich Scottish heritage with two major events annually: the Scottish Christmas Walk in December and the Virginia Scottish Games in July.

The Campagna Center's Annual Scottish Christmas Walk Weekend parade honors the city's Scottish heritage. In total, more than 100 Scottish clans dressed in traditional tartans and playing bagpipes march through the historic streets of the city, along with reenactment units, pipe and drum corps, dog clubs & antique cars.

The Annual Virginia Scottish Games and Festival, one of the nation's largest exhibitions of Scottish culture. The Games feature a Retreat Parade with bagpipe bands and the Baltimore Scottish Color Guard. The U.S. National Highland Heptathlon makes this event a top draw for the Celtic world. Highland dancing, one of the most colorful attractions, includes hundreds of competitors. The weekend also features a British antique automobile show, Scottish breed dog events, clan tents, and a grand parade of Scottish clans.

Another link to Alexandria's Scottish heritage is her sister city in Scotland, Dundee.

Dundee, Alexandria Scottish Sister City

Situated on the banks of the River Tay, Dundee began as a trading port and then became a wool and linen center. Later, the development of the shipbuilding and railroad industries made Dundee one of Britain's largest whaling ports. Although the great industries of the 19th century have largely disappeared, the city has adapted to the late twentieth century by clearing or refurbishing the old industrial areas for housing, small businesses and the arts and leisure uses. The new use makes the most of its attractive location by developing a wide range of facilities for tourists to Scotland. In many ways, the life and evolution of Dundee mirrors that of Alexandria. It retains its historic character, but has adapted itself to the times and flourishes today.


When the City of Alexandria had its 250th anniversary a few years ago, Susan Butler, Vice Chair of Alexandria Commission for Women, helped put together a women's history project.

"We put together an overview of women who had made Alexandria the city it is from the revolutionary days," Butler said.

The Commission on Women, which deals with such issues as domestic violence and teen pregnancy, is using this overview as a basis for the Alexandria Women Make History tour, a guided trolley tour of Old Town Alexandria's women's history sites which took place Oct. 11 and 12 and included a tea.

The women mentioned on the tour included women from as far back as Revolutionary days as well as women who are still alive today, such as Patsy Ticer, who became the first woman mayor of Alexandria in 1991, and Marian Van Landingham, who has represented Alexandria in the Virginia House of Delegates since 1982. The Commission is also putting together a brochure, a walking tour and a bike tour of the sites.

"The idea is to get this off the ground and get the women in the community more aware of women in history," said Butler, who was also the tour guide for the event.

MANY OF THE TOUR attendees said they decided to go on the tour because they didn't know much about the history of women in Alexandria.

"I don't really know anything about the history of women in Alexandria in the past," said Mollie Danforth, a member of the School Board from Alexandria City Public Schools, who went on the tour. "There's so much history, there's no way you can learn it all in history class."

Margaretha Backers Netherton of Falls Church went on the tour with her daughters Mieke, 14, and Kaatrin, 11. Netherton has been teaching her daughters about women's issues recently, and has taken them to visit Susan B. Anthony's house.

"I feel like as women, they need to know the history of women," Netherton said.

According to Butler, there will be 75-80 sites in the brochure about Alexandria women, about 20 of which were on the tour. Butler stressed that the Commission's main project is the brochure, and that they are not tour guides. The tour will probably be held about three or four times a year.

"We're excited that there's finally going to be a permanent walk documenting women's contributions to history," said Laura Mandala, Chair of the Alexandria Commission for Women.

THE TOUR STARTED at The Campagna Center, where Elizabeth Ann Campagna was the executive director of Alexandria's YWCA. The 11 other sites on the tour included several sites related to African American women, including the 400 block of S. Royal Street, where freedwoman and laundress Hannah Jackson saved enough money washing clothes to buy her son, sister, nieces and nephews out of slavery.

Many of the women mentioned on the tour have been overlooked by history. At the Ramsey House on King Street, which is now the city's Visitor's Center, Alexandria founder William Ramsey's wife Ann McCarthy Ramsey, a civic leader and mother of eight, was a major fund-raiser for the Continental Army in the American Revolution. Butler pointed out that A Guide to Historic Alexandria, which was written for the 250th anniversary of the City of Alexandria, mentioned William Ramsey but didn't mention his wife.

Butler mentioned other tidbits of information during the tour, such as the fact that the City Hall library is named for Vola Lawson, the city's first female city manager, who began serving in 1985 and recently retired. Lawson, like Butler, is a breast cancer survivor, and created the Alexandria Commission for Women.

Other guests on the tour included four teachers from Helsingborg, Sweden, a sister city of Alexandria, who were teaching at T.C. Williams High School. Alexandria has three sister cities around the world, which are cities of about the same size that have cultural exchanges with Alexandria.

"We didn't know anything about Alexandria, but so many women have done so much . and so many African Americans," said Swedish teacher Eva Ottosson after the tour.

Butler was pleased with the turnout for the tour. On Oct. 12, Redella S. "Del" Pepper, a member of the Alexandria City Council who is mentioned on the tour, attended.

"I was particularly thrilled with having the Swedish teachers there," Butler said. "I thought that was way cool."

The tour attendees also enjoyed the tour and the opportunity to learn about women in Alexandria's history.

"What's amazing to me is how much women have done historically and how much has been hidden," said tour attendee Junior Bridge.

Netherton liked "knowing all those women were right here in this area, like [Ann Ramsey,] who raised money for the continental army, then wasn't mentioned [in A Guide to Historic Alexandria]."

BUTLER ALSO POINTED OUT during the tour that the whole City of Alexandria sits on property that was originally owned by a woman, Margaret Brent, who immigrated from Europe and settled in Maryland. She was a strong advocate for women's suffrage and also owned land in Fairfax County.

"I never knew anything about [Margaret Brent], never heard about her until Susan brought her up," Bridge said.

Brent is one of Butler's favorite Alexandria women from history, and she concluded the tour with telling everyone about her.

"When you think about women in Alexandria, just remember that [Brent's] land is our land," Butler said.


Explore Alexandria's Black History and Culture

From a self-taught mathematician who mapped out the nation&rsquos capital to abolitionist sisters who partnered with Frederick Douglass to the first Black player in the NBA, African American changemakers have shaped the history of Alexandria, VA and the United States. Minutes from D.C. and the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Alexandria offers tours, markers and more to lead you through (largely outdoor) sites and stories both harrowing and hopeful. Grab your face mask and start exploring Alexandria&rsquos Black history and cultural experiences for a better understanding of today.


Vaata videot: ZAKYNTHOS W PIGUŁCE - ZOBACZ CO WARTO ZOBACZYĆ NA WYSPIE (Jaanuar 2022).