Artiklid

Hegeso haua stell, c. 410 e.m.a.

Hegeso haua stell, c. 410 e.m.a.


Antropomorfne steel

See kivimarker kujutab abstraheeritud inimest. Kuidas peaksime tõlgendama ühte Araabia esimesi esemeid?

Antropomorfne stele, El-Maakir-Qaryat al-kaafa Ha ’il lähedal, Saudi Araabia, 4. aastatuhandel eKr (4000–3000 eKr), liivakivi, 92 x 21 cm (rahvusmuuseum, Riyadh) (foto: Explicit CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Antropomorfne stele firmalt Ha ’il

See stele on pikk, umbes kolm jalga kõrge. Kuid mitte ainult vertikaalne kõrgus muudab selle iseseisva kiviskulptuuri inimlikuks või antropomorfseks.

Kuigi mõlemad pooled on nikerdatud, on rõhk esiosal, eriti näol, rinnal ja vöökohal: trapetsikujuline pea toetub otse ruudukujulistele õlgadele, näo piirjooned raamivad kahte tihedalt asetsevat silma ja rihmaga ülaosaga lamestatud nina kaelakee ripub kahe nööriga, mis ristuvad kehaga diagonaalselt ja mille külge on kinnitatud tiir (väike terav tööriist) ja vöökohal ripub laia vööga, mis jätkub ümber selja, kahe teraga pistoda. Skulptuur on lihtne, isegi abstraktne, kuid kujutab selgelt inimkuju. Mis on stele?

See antropomorfne (inimesetaoline) steel, mis leiti väikesest külast Ha’ili lähedal Loode-Saudi Araabias, oli üks kolmest selles piirkonnas avastatud. Kolmik liitub enam kui kuuekümne inimkujulise madala reljeefiga skulptuuriga, mis pärineb neljandast aastatuhandest e.m.a. ja avastati viimase nelja aastakümne jooksul kogu Araabia poolsaarel. Vaatamata suurele territooriumile, kust nad leiti (umbes 2300 kilomeetrit, ulatudes põhja pool Jordaaniast Jeemeni lõunasse), on neil steelidel (mitmuses stele või ladina keeles stela) teatud tunnused ja omadused. Kuidas see saab nii olla?

Araabia poolsaare kaart

Araabia eelajalugu

Kui tänapäeval on Saudi Araabia tuntud oma kõrbeliiva ja naftavarude poolest, siis eelajaloolistel aegadel olid keskkond ja maastik dramaatiliselt erinevad - viljakamad ja lopsakamad ning inimestele hõlpsasti ligipääsetavad: varajased kivist petroglüüfid kujutavad inimesi, kes jahivad jaanalinde, lennuvõimetut lindu. pole suutnud piirkonnas tuhandeid aastaid ellu jääda. Mis on petroglüüf?

See oli neoliitikumi perioodil, kuuendast kuni neljanda aastatuhandeni e.m.a. Kui Araabia poolsaar sarnanes pigem savannile kui kõrbele, siis väikesed jahimeeste kogujate rühmad viisid oma majanduse järk-järgult kiskjalt tootmisele, kodustades selliseid kariloomi nagu lambad, kitsed ja veised ning asudes elama oaasidesse ja mägipiirkondadesse, mis on seotud üksteist karavaniteede ääres. Muutuvate kliimatingimuste tõttu olid need asulakohad sageli vaid ajutised - okupeeritud hooajaliselt, kuid korduvalt ja ilmselt sajandeid -, kuid just see pidev liikumisvajadus stimuleeris piirkondade vahelist suhtlust ja nende ühiskondade vahelist suhtlust. Kuid Araabia karavaniradadel liikus rohkem kui lihtsalt inimesed: ka ideed ja objektid rändasid.

Kujuline esitus islami-eelses Araabias

Tabuki kaljuseinal, Jordaania-Saudi Araabia piiri lähedal, on kahel hilisneoliitikumi ajastul pärineval inimese siluetil sama nöör, põld ja kahe teraga pistoda nagu Ha’ili stelel. Riqsehist Lõuna -Jordaanias on leitud purunenud stele, millel on sarnane amn ja pistoda. Kui Lõuna -Araabias on stelad tunduvalt väiksemad kui põhjas (mõned ulatuvad vaid 40 sentimeetrini), siis Jeemeni Rawki näited näitavad sama iseloomulikku detailide puudust kui Ha’ili stele. Need tõendid stiililise mõju kohta koos eksogeensete materjalide (mujalt pärit materjalid) olemasoluga kinnitavad, et neoliitikumiperioodil levitati ja vahetati objekte laiade territooriumide vahel.

Kolm antropomorfset stela pärinevad 4. aastatuhandest e.m.a. leitud Saudi Araabia loodeosas, Ha’ili lähedal ja Taymas (foto: © Haupt & amp; Binder)

Sama huvitav kui see ühine visuaalne repertuaar on jagatud antropomorfism: iga steel kujutab endast kivisse raiutud püstist mehekuju - tähelepanuväärne, sest see on figuraalne esitus maal, mille kohta arvatakse nii kaua, et seda pole. Tõepoolest, paljude jaoks algas Araabia poolsaare ajalugu islami tõusuga seitsmendal sajandil m.a.j., kui kunstiline väljendus keskendus kirjasõnale ja inimkuju suures osas puudus. Kuid see, mida Ha’ili stele paljastab-mida näitab meile antropomorfsete stelade kogu korpus-on islami-eelse Araabia olemasolu, kus domineerib inimkuju.

Araabia: avatud poolsaar kaubanduse ristteel

Arheoloogia on Araabia poolsaarel suhteliselt uus uurimisvaldkond: üllataval kombel on teadlased suutnud alles viimase neljakümne aasta jooksul valgustada Saudi Araabia varajast materiaalset kultuuri, et tunnustada ajaloolist ja kultuurilist minevikku, mida suuresti ignoreeriti ja varem arvatakse, et sellel pole üldse tähtsust.

Enne Araabia viirukikaubandust, enne islamit (kui moslemid rändasid palverännakule Mekasse) laienesid neoliitikumi ajal varajased karavaniteed piirkondadevaheliseks võrgustikuks, mis levis lõpuks väliselt Ida-Araabia ja Mesopotaamia vaheliste kontaktideni. Just see varajane kokkupuude asetas poolsaare pronksiajal ja antiikajal aktiivse ja omavahel ühendatud iidse maailma - ida ja läänt ühendava kaubandusliku ja kultuurilise ristmiku - keskuseks, mis ühendab Indiast ja Hiinast jõudnud kaubandus- ja palverännakuteed , Vahemerele ja Egiptusesse, Jeemeni ja Ida -Aafrikasse Süüriasse, Iraani ja Mesopotaamiasse.

Ha’ili steeli tõlgendamine

Vaatamata näilistele visuaalsetele sarnasustele oleks tõsine viga eeldada, et iga steeli tähendused ja sümbolid olid kõikjal ühesugused - arvatakse, et iga piirkonna, küla ja hõimu kombed erinevad ja neil on välja kujunenud tugevad kohalikud traditsioonid. Et vältida riski, et kogu Araabia poolsaarel kaevatud antropomorfsetele steladele omistatakse üldistatud tähendusi, on teadlased materiaalse ajaloo analüüsimisel üha enam keskendunud kohalikule kultuurile. Teisisõnu, nad on vaadanud kaugemale sellest, mis näib olevat ühine stiil, et teha peeneteraline analüüs iga kivi ainulaadsest kontekstist kohalike sotsiaalsete ja rituaalsete tavadega. Seda silmas pidades, kuidas me peaksime tõlgendama Ha’ili steeli, mis on üks Araabia poolsaare varasemaid teadaolevaid esemeid?

Arheoloogid usuvad, et Ha’ili stele oli tõenäoliselt seotud usuliste või matmispraktikatega ja seda kasutati tõenäoliselt hauatähisena vabaõhu pühakojas. Kuigi me ei tea, kes valmistas steeli (kujutage vaid ette spetsiaalset kiviraidurit, kes töötab mobiilsete karjakasvatajate seas), oleme jätkuvalt huvitatud nikerdamise kvaliteedist ja selle minimalistlikust, kuid samas väljendusrikkast inimkuju kujutamisest.

Järeltekst: stele'i ülemaailmne nähtus

Kui nikerdatud või sissekirjutatud kivist stelaid kasutati peamiselt hauatähistena, kasutati neid ka pühendamiseks, mälestamiseks ja piiritlemiseks. Stele on Vahemere maailmas kõige sagedamini kasutatav mõiste, kuid sarnaseid objekte, mida nimetatakse teiste nimedega ja mis pärinevad enamikust perioodidest, on leitud kogu maailmast, sealhulgas Vana -Lähis -Idast, Vana -Egiptusest, Kreekast ja Rooma, Hiinast, islamimaadest ja Pre -Kolumbia Mesoamerica ja Lõuna -Ameerika.

Mõned näited nutiajaloost:
Lisaressursid:

Rémy Crassard ja Phlipp Drechsler, “ Uute paradigmade poole: mitu rada Araabia neoliitikumi jaoks. ” Araabia arheoloogia ja epigraafia 24 (2013), lk 3–8.

Ute Franke, „Varajane Stelae kivis ja#8221 Araabia teed: Saudi Araabia arheoloogilised aarded , toimetanud Ute Franke ja Joachim Gierlichs (Tubingen: Wasmuth Verlag, 2011), lk 68-71.

Tara Steimer-Herbert, “Kolm matusetera 4. aastatuhandest eKr,” Araabia teed: Saudi Araabia kuningriigi arheoloogia ja ajalugu , toimetanud Ibrahim Al-Ghabban, Béatrice André-Salvini, Françoise Demange, Carine Juvin ja Marianne Cotty (Pariis: Somogy Art Publishers: 2010), 166-169.


Jericho

Looduslik oaas

Jeeriko ala, mis asub Surnumerest põhja pool ja otse Jordani jõest läänes, on üks vanimaid pidevalt elanud linnu maailmas. Selle põhjuse võib leida selle araabiakeelsest nimest Ār ī ḥ ā, mis tähendab, et lõhnav Jericho on looduslik oaas kõrbes, kust võib leida lugematuid mageveeallikaid. Sellel ressursil, mis tõi oma esimesed külastajad vahemikku 10 000–9000 eKr, on siiani seal järeltulijaid.

Joonis ( PageIndex <4> ): öelge õhust õhku Jerico arheoloogilise leiukoha es-sultan (foto: Fullo88, üldkasutatav)

Piibli viide

Jeeriko sait on Piiblis kõige paremini tuntud oma identiteedi poolest ning see on palverändureid ja maadeavastajaid sinna meelitanud juba 4. sajandil m.a.j. tõsiseid arheoloogilisi uuringuid alustati alles 19. sajandi teisel poolel. Arheoloogide meelitamine Jeerikosse jätkab tänapäeval lootust leida tõendeid sõdalase Joosua kohta, kes viis iisraellased ebatõenäolisele võidule kaananlaste vastu (& ldquote linnamüürid langesid, kui Joosua ja tema mehed marssisid nende ümber sarve puhudes ja rdquo Joshua 6 : 1-27). Kuigi ühemõttelisi tõendeid Joshua enda kohta pole veel leitud, on avastatud umbes 12 000 aastat inimtegevust.

Jeeriko kõige tähelepanuväärsemad leiud ei pärine aga Joshua ajast, umbes pronksiajast (3300–1200 eKr), vaid pigem neoliitikumi ajastu varasemast osast, enne kui isegi keraamika valmistamise tehnoloogia oli avastatud. .

Joonis ( PageIndex <5> ): vaadates alla Jericho tornile (foto: Reinhard Dietrich, üldkasutatav)

Vanad seinad

Jeeriko ala tõuseb kõrgemale Jordani oru laiast tasandikust, selle kõrgus tuleneb kiht -kihilt inimasustusest, moodustis Tell. Varasemad saidi külastajad, kes jätsid jäänused (kivitööriistad), tulid mesoliitikumi ajastul (umbes 9000 eKr), kuid esimene asula saidil, Eini-Sultani kevade ümbruses, pärineb varase neoliitikumi ajastust ja need inimesed, kes ehitasid kodusid, kasvatasid taimi ja pidasid loomi, olid ühed esimesed, kes seda igal pool maailmas tegid. Täpsemalt leidsid arheoloogid keraamikaeelsel neoliitikumi A tasemel Jericho linnas (8500–7000 e.m.a) väga suure ümmarguste kodude asulaid, mis olid valmistatud mudatellistest ja kaetud kuplikatusega.

Nagu selle ajastu nimigi ütleb, ei olnud need varajased inimesed Jeerikos veel aru saanud, kuidas keraamikat valmistada, kuid nad tegid kivist nõusid, koekangast ja tööriistade jaoks vahetati eriti kasuliku kivi, obsidiaani, vastu. kaugel & Ccediliftlik, Türgi idaosas. Asula kasvas kiiresti ja teadmata põhjustel ehitasid elanikud peagi oma linna ümber märkimisväärse kiviaia ja väliskraavi koos seina siseküljele paigutatud peaaegu kaheksa meetri kõrguse kivitorniga. Selle seina funktsiooni teooriad ulatuvad sõjalisest kaitsest loomkiskjate eemal hoidmiseni ja isegi asulat ümbritseva maapinna loodusliku tõusu vastu võitlemiseni. Kuid vaatamata selle esialgsele kasutusele on siin esimene müüriversioon, mille Joshua nii kuue tuhande aasta pärast nii osavalt vallutas.

Krohvitud inimese kolju

Pottsepatööle eelnenud neoliitikumi A perioodile järgneb pottsepatöö eelneoliit B (7000–5200 eKr), mis erines olulisel määral eelkäijast. Selle ajastu majad olid ühtlaselt ristkülikukujulised ja ehitatud uut tüüpi ristkülikukujuliste mudatellistega, mis olid kaunistatud kalasaba pöidlajälgedega ja asetatud alati pikisuunas paksu mudamördiga. Seda mörti kasutati sarnaselt krohviga ka siseseinte sileda pinna loomiseks, mis ulatub ka üle põrandate. Sel perioodil on Jericho kultuse või usuliste veendumuste kohta tugevaid tõendeid. Arheoloogid avastasid ühe unikaalselt suure hoone, mis pärineb sellest ajastust ja millel on unikaalsed krohvitud sisekaevud ja kraanikausid, samuti kupliga külgnevad konstruktsioonid. Arvatakse, et see oli pidulikuks kasutamiseks.

Joonis ( PageIndex <6> ): krohvitud inimese kolju koos koorega silmadega Jericho, keraamikaeelne neoliit B, c. 7200 e.m.a. (Briti muuseum)

Teised võimalikud tõendid kultuspraktika kohta avastati mitmetest keraamikaeelse neoliitikumi linna kodudest krohvitud inimkoljude kujul, mis olid vormitud elava pea sarnaseks. Silmade jaoks kasutati kestasid ja värvijäljed näitasid, et ka nahk ja juuksed olid esindatud. Suurim koos leitud rühm oli üheksa näidet, mis olid maetud ühe maja krohvitud põranda alla.

Jericho ei ole ainus koht, kus krohvitud kolju on leitud keraamikaeelsel neoliitikumi B tasemel. Neid on leitud ka Tell Ramadist, Beisamounist, Kfar Hahoreshist, & lsquoAin Ghazalist ja Nahal Hemarist. Nende saitide seast avastatud umbes kuuekümne kahe kolju hulgas teame, et esindatud on vanemad ja nooremad mehed ning naised ja lapsed, mis tekitab huvitavaid küsimusi nende tähenduse kohta. Kas need olid esivanemate kummardamise keskpunktiks, nagu algselt arvati, või toimisid need kujutistena, mille järgi surnud pereliikmeid mäletada? Kuna meil puudub kirjalik dokument selles piirkonnas neoliitikumis praktiseeritud uskumuste süsteemist, ei saa me seda kunagi teada.

Lisaressursid:

Nutiajaloolised pildid õpetamiseks ja õppimiseks:

Joonis ( PageIndex <7> ): rohkem nutiajaloolisi pilte ja hellip

415 eKr

Kreeka
Ateena oraator ja poliitik Andocides vangistatakse kahtlustatuna selles, et ta osales pühade büstide "Hermae" moonutamises veidi enne Ateena sõjaretke lahkumist Sitsiiliasse. Need moonutused põhjustavad üldist paanikat ja andotsiidid kutsuvad informaatoriks. Andotsiidi tunnistus võetakse vastu ja need, kellele ta osutab, sealhulgas Alkibiades, mõistetakse surma. Andotsiidid saadetakse pagulusse.
Ateena ekspeditsioon Sitsiiliasse seilas purje Niciase, Lamachose ja Alkibiadese juhtimisel. Pärast armadaga lahkumist süüdistatakse Alkibiadet roppus ja ta kutsutakse Ateenasse kohtu ette.
Pärast seda, kui ta sai teada, et ta on tagaselja surma mõistetud, saadetakse Alkibiades Spartasse ja Nikias Sitsiilia ekspeditsiooni juhtima. Ateena väed maanduvad Syrakusa lähedal Dasconis, kuid tulemusteta. Hermokraat juhib Syracusa kaitset.
Alkibiades ühineb avalikult spartalastega ja veenab neid saatma Gylippust Siracusat abistama ja kaitsma Deceleat Atikas. Samuti julgustab ta Jooniat mässama Ateena vastu. Selle tulemusel saabub varsti Sparta laevastik, et tugevdada oma liitlasi Siracusas ja tekib ummikseis.


Draama
Euripidese näidendi "Trooja naised" mängivad peagi pärast veresauna Melose meespopulatsiooni ateenlased.


Ateena kodakondsusega naised

Enamik meie allikaid klassikalisest ajastust (500–323 eKr) pärineb linnriigist Ateenast (polis) Atika piirkonnas tänapäeva Kreekas.

Kreeka sellisena, nagu me seda tänapäeval tunneme, muistses maailmas ei eksisteerinud ja piirkond koosnes mitmest linnriigist, nt. Ateena, Sparta, Korintos, Teeba jne. Igaüks polis kontrollis märkimisväärset maa -ala, millel oli võim linna enda sees olevate poliitiliste või sõjaliste institutsioonide näol. Näiteks Ateena kontrollis enamikku Atika piirkonnast, kuid hääletamine ja kogunemised toimusid linnamüüride sees.

Pildikrediit saidile powermylearning.com

Ateena kultuur inspireeris paljusid teisi linnriike kogu praeguses Kreekas ja Vahemere maailmas, eriti pärast seda, kui Kreeka linnad asustasid selliseid piirkondi nagu praegune Türgi ja Lõuna-Itaalia.

Me ei saa eeldada, et naiste roll Ateena ühiskonnas esindaks naiste elu kogu Kreeka linnriikides. Kuid ainuüksi tõendite hulk, mis meil Ateenast on, tähendab, et see on hea võrdlusmoment, kui vaadata teisi iidseid kultuure (Pomeroy, 1990: xv), ja Ateena avaldas kindlasti mõju ka teistele tsivilisatsioonidele, eriti Vana -Roomale.

Ateena on kuulus selle poolest, et on esimene ühiskond, mis kehtestas demokraatia. Sõna demokraatia pärineb sisuliselt demod, mis tähendab "inimesed" ja kratos, mis tähendab "jõud või jõud". Niisiis tähendab demokraatia sisuliselt "rahva valitsemist".

Kuid Ateena demokraatias olid „inimesed” ainult need, kes vastasid teatud kriteeriumile. Ateenas hääletamiseks pidite olema Ateena meeskodanik. See tähendas, et naised ja lapsed (isegi need, kes olid Ateena kodanikud), orjastatud inimesed ja väljaspool Ateenat sündinud inimesed (mõõdikud) ei saanud hääletada.

Vaatamata sellele, et naistel ei lubatud poliitikas osaleda, olid naised Ateena ühiskondliku ja poliitilise struktuuri jaoks olulised ning nende roll selles iidse elu aspektis keskendub suuresti nende järglaste legitiimsuse tähtsusele.

Abielu ja seaduslikkus

Ateenas ja paljudes kultuurides muistses ja kaasaegses maailmas tagati legitiimsuse, et kodakondsuse saaks vanematelt oma lastele edasi anda. Kuid isadustestide eelsel ajastul oleks olnud võimatu tõestada, et isik oli seaduslik või muul viisil.

See on ilmne abielludes Vana -Ateenas, kuna selle peamine eesmärk oli seaduslike laste saamine, kuna see tagas meespoolsete järglaste osalemise poliitikas ja ka pärimise, samas kui naissoost lapsed said kodakondsuse oma lastele edasi anda. See muutus olulisemaks pärast seda, kui Ateena juht Perikles võttis aastal 451 eKr vastu seaduse, mis takistas Ateena isa ja mitteateenlasest ema järglastel kodakondsust. Neljandast sajandist e.m.a pärit kohtupraktika näitab lapse legitiimsuse tuvastamise tähtsust:

„Kui me sündisime, tutvustas isa meile fraatriumi [vendlust, kelle ülesandeks oli lapse kodakondsuse loomine] ja andis vande vastavalt väljakujunenud tavadele, et tutvustab Ateena kodanikust ja seaduslikult abiellunud naisest sündinud lapsi. . '

Isaeus 8.18-20

Enne abiellumist tuli kindlaks teha naise legitiimsus (sisuliselt tema õigus Ateena kodakondsusele). Selle tulemusena naised, kes valetasid oma laste legitiimsuse üle või tegelesid abieluväliste (moicheia) asju karistati rängalt. Naised, kes suhtlesid teiste meestega peale oma abikaasa, olid tavaliselt lahutatud ning nad ei saanud kanda mingeid kaunistusi (ehteid) ega osaleda avalikel religioossetel tseremooniatel, mis oleks iga päev siseruumides villa tegemisega ummikus! Kui oleksite mehega koos teise mehe naisega tabatud, võidakse teid tappa. Siiski tuli anda mõjuv põhjus, et mees saaks teise tappa, isegi abielurikkumise tõttu, nagu on näidatud käesolevas kohtuasjas, kus abikaasa kaitseb oma tegusid (umbes 400 eKr):

„Ma [Euphiletos] läksin ühe mehe majja teise järel. Mõned leidsin kodus, teised, mulle öeldi, olid linnast väljas. Nii et kogusin võimalikult palju neid, kes seal olid, läksin tagasi [Euphiletose majja]. Ostsime taskulambid lähedal asuvast poest ja sisenesime minu majja. Uks oli neiu kokkuleppel lahti jäetud.

Sundisime magamistoa ukse. Esimene meist, kes sisenes, nägi teda endiselt minu naise kõrval lamamas. Need, kes järgnesid, nägid teda alasti voodi ääres seismas. Koputasin ta, žürii liikmed, ühe hoobiga maha. Keerasin siis ta käed selja taha ja sidusin need kinni. Ja siis ma küsisin temalt, miks ta sooritab minu vastu selle kuriteo, mu koju tungimise.

Ta vastas, et tunnistab oma süüd, kuid palus ja palus, et ma teda ei tapaks - nõustuksin selle asemel rahaga. Aga ma vastasin: „Mitte mina ei tapa teid, vaid selle riigi seadus, mida te üleastudes olete vähem hinnanud kui oma soovi. Olete eelistanud selle suure kuriteo toime panna minu naise ja laste vastu, selle asemel, et kuuletuda seadustele ja olla korraliku käitumisega. ”

Lysias, Eratosthenese mõrva kohta 26-27

Kahjuks oli abielu naiste jaoks ohtlik äri, eriti kui see puudutas sünnitust. Ateenal oli vähe teadmisi naiste anatoomia kohta ning emade ja imikute suremus oli kõrge. See väga õigustatud mure (emade suremus on tänapäeval kogu maailmas endiselt probleem) on kantud Euripidesest ja#8217 Medea:

Medea: Mehed ütlevad, et me elame kodus ohust vaba elu, kui nad odaga kaklevad. Kui valed nad on! Pigem seisan lahingus kolm korda kilbiga, kui sünnitan üks kord.

Euripides, Medea 247-250

Vaatamata naistele avaldatud survele laste sünnitamiseks, ei olnud Ateena abielud siiski kõik kiindumusteta. See on selge Ateenast ja kogu kreekakeelsest maailmast pärinevate hauakivide pealdistega, kus abikaasad või isad leinavad oma naise või tütre kaotust. See räägib naiste idealiseeritud ootustest, et surnute kiitmine keskendub suuresti nende tagasihoidlikkusele, heale meelele või suhetele abikaasa/isaga.

See ei olnud riietus ega kuld, mida see naine oma elu jooksul imetles, see oli tema abikaasa ja hea meel, mida ta oma käitumises näitas. Kuid vastutasuks nooruse eest, mida temaga jagate, Dionysia, kaunistab teie hauda teie abikaasa Antiphilus.

Dionysia hauakivi, Ateena, 4. sajand eKr (IG II2. 11162)

Igapäevane elu

Abielunaised, välja arvatud seaduslikud lapsed, pidid hoolitsema oma leibkonna eest (oikos), nagu ilmneb järgmistest katkenditest Xenophonist Leibkonna haldamise kohta:

„Siis on oluline, et kui koju tuuakse varusid, peab keegi neid turvaliselt hoidma ja tegema majapidamistöid. Väikelaste kasvatamiseks on vaja kodu ja saagist toidu valmistamiseks kodu. Samamoodi on villast riiete valmistamiseks vaja kodu. "Kuna nii sise- kui ka välistingimustes kasutatavad asjad nõudsid nii tööd kui ka järelevalvet," ütlesin ma, "usun, et jumal korraldas töö ja järelevalve siseruumides on naiste ülesanne ja õues meeste oma."

Ksenofoon, Leibkonna haldamise kohta 7.21-22

"Sest korralik naine loodi selleks, et hoolitseda oma laste eest ja mitte neid hooletusse jätta, ja seetõttu ütles ta, et õige naine eelistab hoolitseda oma vara eest, mitte neid hooletusse jätta."

Ksenofoon, Leibkonna haldamise kohta 9.19

Xenophon peab abielu asjalikuks partnerluseks, kusjuures abikaasa ja abikaasa vastutavad leibkonna haldamise valdkondade eest, mis sobisid kõige paremini nende oletatavate füüsiliste ja psühholoogiliste võimetega. Kuid Xenophon ’ dialoog on selgelt ülimalt idealistlik ja võib jätta liiga lihtsustatud mulje Ateena naistest ja nende igapäevaelust.

Varasemad stipendiumid on näidanud, et naised jäid siseruumidesse, vältisid meestega avalikult rääkimist ja asusid meestega eraldi ruumis ( güneceum). Siiski soovitab Cohen (1996: 134-145), et sellist kontrolli peeti idealiseeritud praktikateks, mis ei kajastanud Ateena ühiskonna tegelikkust. Pigem on tõenäolisem, et naised lahkusid sageli kodust, et tegeleda majapidamisasjadega, töötada teenindussektoris (põllumajandus, käsitöö, toiduainete tootmine) ning osaleda religioossetes rituaalides ja tseremooniates (Lindgren, 2013: 125-146) ).

Usulistes küsimustes said naised teatud kontrolli kontrollida. Ateena naised ja võõramaised naised võisid osaleda mitmesugustes religioossetes rituaalides, mis olid Ateena ühiskonnas kesksel kohal (Fantham, Peet Foley, et al. 1994). See algas noores eas, kui naised tantsisid, kandsid pühasid esemeid ja tegid ohvreid. Naised vastutasid ka iga -aastase festivali Thesmophoria korraldamise eest, millega tähistati jumalanna Demetrit ja tema tütart Persephone'i. Võite olla üllatunud, kui teate, et festival tähistas viljakust ja#8230

Ateena tüdrukud jäid tavaliselt oma emadega koju, kus nad valmistusid abiellumiseks, mis, nagu me teame, keskendus suuresti oikos. Vaasimaalid viitavad sellele, et jõukatel tüdrukutel võis olla põhiharidus, sealhulgas lugemis- ja muusikatunnid (Blundell, 1998: 10–28). Siiski on tõenäoline, et enamikule naistele õpetati väga elementaarset kirjaoskust, millest ilmselt piisas leibkonna ja selle raamatupidamise haldamiseks, kuigi teadlaste seas arutatakse selle üle laialdaselt (Lindgren, 2013: 125-146).

Phiale Painterile omistatud punane hüdria 430 eKr kujutab noori tüdrukuid tantsutundides. Tampa kunstimuuseum.

Kunagi vanuses 12–18 aastat abiellusid Ateena tüdrukud. Kahjuks oli neil vähe valikut, kellega nad abiellusid, nagu isa korraldas. Tüdrukute jaoks, kes elasid emaga varjatud elu kodus, oleks abiellumine olnud tohutu murrang: kodu ja asukoha vahetus, esimene seksuaalne kogemus (nõusolekul või muul viisil) ja abielu mehega, kes oli neist ilmselt oluliselt vanem olid (Blundell, 1998: 29-30).

Tüdrukute isad oleksid varustanud neid kaasavaraga, mida pidi kasutama majapidamises, tagades seeläbi tütre heaolu ja mugavuse. Seetõttu oli kaasavara abielu korraldamisel hädavajalik, nagu on näidatud selles stseenis, mille kirjutas 4. sajandi dramaturg:

Isa: See on õige. Kuulake, mida ma ütlen. Selle tüdruku annan ma teile laste koristamiseks.
Tulevane abikaasa: Ma nõustun.
Isa: Lisan kolme talendi kaasavara.
Tulevane abikaasa: Suuremeelne.

Menander, Perikeiromene (Tüdruk lühikeste juustega), 1013-14

Kui mees lahutaks oma naisest, tagastatakse kaasavara naise algsesse majapidamisse (Brulé, 2001: 121-6). Tuleb märkida, et kuna naised ei saanud Ateena õigussüsteemis osaleda, said abielulahutushagi kaasa võtta ainult mehed. Meessoost sugulased võiksid aga lahutatud abielu nimel tegutseda õnnetu naise nimel.

See on väga lühitutvustus naiste elust klassikalises Ateenas. Kõnealused naised olid kodanikud ja seetõttu said nad orjastatud inimeste ja mittekodanikega võrreldes teatavaid privileege. Kaasaegsest vaatenurgast on meil raske ette kujutada, mis tunne oli naistel noorena abielluda ja luua perekond meestega, keda nad vaevu tundsid. Ühiskondlikud ootused oleksid tõenäoliselt valmistanud noori naisi ette üleminekuks lapsepõlvest abieluellu. Kahjuks puudub meil juurdepääs naiste vaatenurgale nende enda elust.

Naistel oli teatud määral sõltumatust, kuna nad olid religioossete tseremooniate ja majapidamistööde keskmes. Kuid meile kättesaadavatest allikatest ja jõukate meeste kirjutatud#8211 on selge, et see oli nii mõtlesin et naiste peamine ülesanne Vana -Ateena ühiskonnas oli abielluda ja saada seaduslikud lapsed.

Mõned asjad, mida tähele panna:

  1. Nagu öeldud, on see väga lühike ülevaade naiste elust klassikalises Ateenas. Uurimiseks on veel palju allikaid ja stipendiumiteoseid. Kui olete huvitatud, kaaluge mõnda allpool loetletud bibliograafiat.
  2. Kõik sellel lehel kasutatud peamiste allikate tõlked, välja arvatud Menander (Loebi väljaanne), on saadaval Lefkowitzi ja Fanti väljaandes Naiste elu Kreekas ja Roomas.

Brulé, P. 2003. Nevill, A. (tr). Vana -Kreeka naised. Edinburgh: Edinburghi ülikooli kirjastus.

Cohen, D. 1996. Eraldatus, eraldatus ja naiste staatus. In: McAuslan, I., Walcott, P. (toim). Naised antiikajal. Oxford: Oxford University Press, lk 134-145.


Hegeso haua stell, c. 410 e.m.a. - Ajalugu


Leonardo da Vinci, Viimane õhtusöök, 1495-7 Milano,
Santa Maria delle Grazie


Vorm: Kuigi kompositsioon on selgelt sümmeetriline, tundub kompositsiooni visuaalne kaal tugevas diagonaalis kulgevat pildi vasakust alumisest nurgast ülespoole lipuvarda ja seejärel maali paremas ülanurgas suitsupilvedesse.

Lipp ja hägused püssirohupilved loovad üle pilditasandi tugeva diagonaali, mis liigutab silmi vasakust ülanurgast vasakul allosas asuva indiaanlase poole. Kõik arvud, sealhulgas indiaanlased, jagavad sama žestide ja liigutuste kombinatsiooni sarnaselt Leonardo omadega Viimane õhtusöök.

Kompositsioon on samuti paigutatud sarnaselt Grueze ja Poussini maalidega. Sarnaselt barokkstiilis Prantsuse kolleegidega on pilt konstrueeritud nii, et enamik figuure asetatakse esiplaanile ja kuigi sügava ruumi loomine on olemas, pole taust nii oluline kui figuurid.

See maal naaseb oma valgustuse, kompositsiooni ja liikumise poolest barokk -tundlikkuse juurde. West kasutab vabalt tenebrismi ja chiaroscurot ning tähelepanu keskmes on Leonaroesque'i püramiidi paigutatud figuur.

Ikonograafia ja kontekst kunstikriitik Robert Hughesi sõnul,

Ameerika kunstid ei toonud esialgu esile midagi uut, välja arvatud 18. sajandi keskpaiga ja lõpu mööbel-ja üks Benjamin Westi teos. Kui ta oli 12-aastane, teatas West (1738-1820), et tema talent teeb temast "kuningate ja keisrite kaaslase". Ja tegelikult läkski nii: pärast 1763. aastal Inglismaale elama asumist sai temast George III lemmikkunstnik. Tema lõplik töö oli Kindral Wolfe surm, 1770. See oli ajaloomaal, kuid lähiajalugu, mis rääkis Briti võidust prantslaste üle Quebeci lahingus vaid kümme aastat varem. Ja see oli "kaasaegses", 18. sajandi lõpu kleidis. See muutis kangelaslikul mälestamisel inglise dekooriatunnet, ideed, mida ajaloomaaling võiks teha.

Quebeci lahingus 1759. aastal tapeti Briti ülem kindralmajor James Wolfe võidu hetkel prantslaste üle. Westi maal kujutab kangelast, kes saab uudiseid just siis, kui ta aegub. Kuni West selle teose ei loonud, oli ajaloomaal nõudnud togasid ja muid antiikaja tarvikuid. Lääne kaasaegse 18. sajandi kleidi kasutamine tekitas poleemikat ning tema repliik kriitikutele sai kuulsaks. Ta märkis, et Quebeci piiramine toimus "maailma piirkonnas, mida kreeklased ja roomlased ei tundnud. Kui selliseid riike ega nende kostüümides kangelasi enam ei eksisteerinud. Sama tõde, mis juhib ajaloolase sulepea" peaks juhtima kunstniku pliiatsit. " Seal rääkis loomulik mees uuest maailmast, pragmaatiline, realistlik-kuigi tegelikult oli West'i maal realistlikust väga kaugel.

Aeg, kevad97 eriväljaanne, kd. 149. väljaanne 17, lk 76, 10p, 10c
Autor (id): Hughes, Robert

Nagu Westis, Kindral Wolfe surm. 1770. aastal naaseb see maal ka valgustuse, kompositsiooni ja liikumise poolest barokksti. Copley kasutab vabalt tenebrismi ja chiaroscurot ning tähelepanu keskmes on Leonaroesque'i püramiidis asetatud figuur.

Jällegi jookseb pilti läbi tugev diagonaal ja kõik figuurid jagavad sama žestide ja liigutuste kombinatsiooni sarnaselt Leonardo omaga Viimane õhtusöök.

Kompositsioon on samuti paigutatud sarnaselt Westi, Grueze'i ja Poussini maalidega. Sarnaselt kolleegidega on pilt konstrueeritud nii, et enamik figuure asetatakse esiplaanile ja kuigi seal on sügava ruumi loomine, ei ole taust nii oluline kui figuurid.

Kontekst vastavalt Brittanica, John Singleton Copley
b. 3. juuli 1738, Boston [Mass, USA]
d. Sept. 9, 1815, London, Eng.
American painter of portraits and historical subjects, generally acclaimed as the finest artist of colonial America.

Little is known of Copley's boyhood. He developed within a flourishing school of colonial portraiture, and it was as a portraitist that he reached the high point of his art, and--as his Boston portraits later revealed--he gained an intimate knowledge of his New England subjects and milieu and was able to convey a powerful sense of physical entity and directness--real people seen as they are. From his stepfather, the limner and engraver Peter Pelham, Copley gained familiarity with graphic art as well as an early sense of vocation. Before he was 20 he was an accomplished draughtsman. To the Rococo portrait style derived from the English painter Joseph Blackburn he brought his own powers of imagination and a technical ability surpassing anyone painting in America at the time. Copley, in his portraits, made eloquent use of a Rococo device, the portrait d'apparat--portraying the subject with the objects associated with him in his daily life--that gave his work a liveliness and acuity not usually associated with 18th-century American painting.

Although he was steadily employed with commissions from the Boston bourgeoisie, Copley wanted to test himself against the more exacting standards of Europe. In 1766, therefore, he exhibited "Boy with a Squirrel" at the Society of Artists in London. It was highly praised both by Sir Joshua Reynolds and by Copley's countryman Benjamin West. Copley married in 1769. Although he did not venture out of Boston except for a seven-month stay in New York City (June 1771-January 1772), he was urged by fellow artists who were familiar with his work to study in Europe. When political and economic conditions in Boston began to deteriorate (Copley's father-in-law was the merchant to whom the tea that provoked the Boston Tea Party was consigned), Copley left the country--never to return--in June 1774. In 1775 his wife, children, and several other family members arrived in London, and Copley established a home there in 1776.

His ambitions in Europe went beyond portraiture he was eager to make a success in the more highly regarded sphere of historical painting. In his first important work, "Watson and the Shark" (1778), Copley used what was to become one of the great themes of 19th-century Romantic art, the struggle of man against nature. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1779. Although his English paintings grew more academically sophisticated and self-conscious, in general they lacked the extraordinary vitality and penetrating realism of his Boston portraits. Toward the end of his life, his physical and mental health grew worse. Though he continued to paint with considerable success until the last few months of his life, he was obsessed by the sale (at a loss) of his Boston property and by his increasing debts.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

The three arches organize the composition in such a way that it is meant to be read from left to right, almost as if it is a triptych from Renaissance Italian painting.

The composition is also modeled on classical Greek or Roman relief sculpture as one would find on the Ara Pacis or the friezes of the Parthenon. The painting space is literally modeled after figures in the composition in Greco Roman relief sculptures in that their is very little background and the figures, which are somewhat spot lit stand out from a very sparse background. The Roman arches are also meant to be read sculpturally.

The style in which David painted this is very hard edged and realistic, although painted before the invention of photography, this painting seems to look almost photographic.

Iconography: Everything about this painting is meant to refer to the classical world. The formal elements and clothing clearly look classic (sometimes referred to as "antique") but the actual content of the image also refers to a historical event as well.

According to the Brittanica:
The Horatii were a Roman legend, two sets of triplet brothers whose story was probably fashioned to explain existing legal or ritual practices. The Horatii were Roman and the Curiatii Alban, although an alternative version reversed this order. During the war between Rome and Alba Longa in the reign of Tullus Hostilius (traditionally 672-642 BC), it was agreed that settlement of the dispute should depend on the outcome of combat between the two groups of brothers.

In the contest two of the Horatii were quickly killed but the third, feigning flight, managed to slay his wounded pursuers one by one. When the survivor entered Rome in triumph, his sister recognized among his trophies a cloak she had made for one of the Curiatii to whom she was betrothed. She could not conceal her grief and was killed by her brother, who declared, "So perish any Roman woman who mourns the enemy." For this act Horatius was condemned to death, but he was saved by an appeal to the people.

The tale might have been devised to provide an august origin for the legal practice that granted every condemned Roman the right to appeal to the populace. Alternatively, perhaps it was used to explain the ritual of the tigillum sororium ("sister's beam"), the yoke under which Horatius had to pass to be purified of his crime.

Iconography and Context: The people represented in this drawing were some of the people who took the famous "Oath of the Tennis Court" which according to the Brittanica, was a

The anatomy of the the figure is idealized and very muscular and almost appears to mimic the idealized muscular structure of Greco Roman sculpture.

The composition is also modeled on classical Greek or Roman relief sculpture as one would find on the Ara Pacis or the friezes of the Parthenon. The painting space is literally modeled after figures in the composition in Greco Roman relief sculptures in that their is very little background and the figures, which are somewhat spot lit stand out from a very sparse background.

In terms of value structure David is very much of a caravaggisti in this painting. He uses tenebrism and heightened chiaroscuro.

The style in which David painted this is very hard edged and realistic, although painted before the invention of photography, this painting seems to look almost photographic.

Context: According to the Brittanica,

The composition is also modeled on classical Greek or Roman relief sculpture as one would find on the Ara Pacis or the friezes of the Parthenon. The painting space is literally modeled after figures in the composition in Greco Roman relief sculptures in that their is very little background and the figures, which are somewhat spot lit stand out from a very sparse background.

In terms of value structure David is very much of a caravaggisti in this painting. He uses tenebrism and heightened chiaroscuro.

At the height of his youthful popularity and enthusiasm, part of a close circle of friends (including Chernier, Lafayette and Lavoisier) who were pushing for radical political reform, David painted this unusual historical picture in 1787. Commissioned by the Trudaine de Montigny brothers, leaders in the call for a free market system and more public discussion, this picture depicts the closing moments of the life of Socrates. Condemned to death or exile by the Athenian government for his teaching methods which aroused scepticism and impiety in his students, Socrates heroicly rejected exile and accepted death from hemlock.

For months, David and his friends debated and discussed the importance of this picture. It was to be another father figure (like the Horatii and Brutus), unjustly condemned but who sacrifices himself for an abstract principle. By contrasting the movements of the energetic but firmly controlled Socrates, and his swooning disciples, through the distribution of light and dark accents, David transforms what might have been only a fashionable picture of martyrdom to a clarion call for nobility and self-control even in the face of death.

Here the philosopher continues to speak even while reaching for the cup, demonstrating his indifference to death and his unyielding commitment to his ideals. Most of his disciplines and slaves swirl around him in grief, betraying the weakness of emotionalism. His wife is seen only in the distance leaving the prison. Only Plato, at the foot of the bed and Crito grasping his master's leg, seem in control of themselves.

For contemporaries the scene could only call up memories of the recently abandoned attempt at reform, the dissolution of the Assembly of Notables in 1787, and the large number of political prisoners in the king's jails or in exile. David certainly intended this scene as a rebuke to cringing souls. On the eve of the Revolution, this picture served as a trumpet call to duty, and resistance to unjust authority. Thomas Jefferson was present at its unveiling, and admired it immensly. Sir Joshua Reynolds compared the Socrates with Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling and Raphael's Stanze, and after ten visits to the Salon described it as `in every sense perfect'.

Iconography: Clearly Greenough was using the iconography and symbolism established by neoclassical artists in the 19th century. Here Washingston literally looks like a Greek god which is meant to canonnize him.

The hand pointing up is almost certainly a reference to Rafael's depiction of Plato from the "School of Athens."

Context: According to Jean K. Rosales and Michael R. Jobe (http://www.kittytours.org/thatman2/search.asp?subject=18)

Congress made seven attempts to honor George Washington (1732-1799) this was Try Number 4. In 1832, Greenough was commissioned to design a statue of General Washington standing, but chose to model his statue on a statue of the Greek God Zeus. There may have been some method in his madness.

The original Mills design for the Washington Monument would have included a Greek temple on top of which there was supposed to be a statue of George Washington driving a six-horse chariot. A close examination of the artist's rendering of this design indicates that the Greenough statue looks amazingly like the Mills chariot driver.

One suspects he was seeking a larger commission, since acceptance of this statue would have also generated the commission for the six horses. This theory helps to explain the very awkward position of Washington's left hand -- it was supposed to be holding the reins of the chariot.

Biography:
Swiss prodigy, Maria Anna Catharina Angelica Kauffmann had an established reputation as an artist and musician by the age of eleven. Her father taught her and also accompanied her to Italy where she studied and continued to create her Rococo-style paintings. Kauffmann moved to London in 1766 and met Sir Joshua Reynolds. She helped to found the Royal Academy in 1769 and married fellow artist, Antonio Zucchi. The couple moved to his home country of Italy and settled in Rome. In addition to her many portraits, several of Kauffmann s great works were the decorations at St. Paul s and the Royal Academy s lecture room at Somerset House.

Iconography: Scenes like this are called genre, or everyday, scenes. This is a scene of everyday life in which a maid brings a jewelry box to her mistress and she examines her trophies. This kind of scene, which is often referred to as the "Mistress and Maid" motif is one that can also be found on vases as well as steles. It can best be interpreted as a typical scene of upper class feminine pursuits. The maid, the jewels, the chair, and the implied literacy of the visitors to the grave by the inscription on the lintel, are emblems of economic power that compliment the seated woman's beauty and status. (Compare this to the iconography of vases that depict two males such as in the Exekias vase.)

Context: This stele was used as a grave marker and is probably an attempt by the artist and the people who commissioned it to make an idealized portrait of the represented, seated woman, buried in this grave.


Jacques-Louis David, Madame Recamier a.k.a.. Madame Geoffrine 1800



Jacques-Germain Soufflot. Pantheon 1755-92 Begun in 1757 as the Church of Sainte-Geneviève, the Pantheon is now a civic building housing the remains of some of France's most famous citizens.

Rome, Pantheon 118-128CE
Marcus Agrippa
Hadrian?

Thomas Jefferson, Monticello 1770-1776
American Neoclassicism

Chiswick House, by Lord Burlington (Richard Boyle),
at Chiswick, England, 1729.
Gardens by William Kent 1730
English Neoclassicism

Women Artists: "You've Come A Long Way Baby"

On the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, she left France and for 12 years traveled abroad, to Rome, Naples, Vienna, Berlin, St. Petersburg, and Moscow, painting portraits and playing a leading role in society. In 1801 she returned to Paris but, disliking Parisian social life under Napoleon, soon left for London, where she painted portraits of the court and of Lord Byron. Later she went to Switzerland (and painted a portrait of Mme de Staël) and then again (c. 1810) to Paris, where she ceased painting.

Vigée-Lebrun was a woman of much wit and charm, and her memoirs, Souvenirs de ma vie (1835-37 "Reminiscences of My Life"), provide a lively account of her times as well as of her own work. She was one of the most technically fluent portraitists of her era, and her pictures are notable for the freshness, charm, and sensitivity of their presentation. During her career, according to her own account, she painted 877 pictures, including 622 portraits and about 200 landscapes.

In the self portrait the artist has chosen a neoclassical looking garment and the texture of the background is undefined. In the portrait of Marie Antoinette, the queen is dressed in fairly expensive clothing however the clothing is not terribly ornate or ostentatious.

Iconography: In both images, the artist has chosen to portray the female as a "good mother" in the manner that Rousseau advocated. In Rousseau's point of view the role of individuals was predetermined by their innate nature and that in order for an individual to fit into society as a whole one must live in accordance with this nature. In the case of females, this role was to have children and be good mothers. Both of these images subscribe to this point of view because these images were meant to be almost advertisements or a form of propaganda that would present a persona to the world.

Context: By 1789, accusations of impropriety and adultery had destroyed her public reputation. This self portrait was an attempt to portray herself as a moral and upright Frenchwoman. The same was true for Marie Antoinette. In this painting Marie Antoinette is being depicted in modest clothing to defend against accusations of excessive spending and she is also portrayed as the good mother who had also lost a son. On the right is her brother, Louis, Le Dauphin gesturing toward the empty crib which indicates her loss.


Stele of Hegeso
c.410-400 BC, Marble, 5'9"
Ateena. Classic Greek

The picture plane is arranged in a sculptural frieze like band that takes its cue from antique sculptural friezes such as those found on the Ara Pacis and the Parthenon. Like its classical counterparts, the image is constructed so that most of the figures are placed in the foreground and even though there is the creation of deep space, the background is not as important as the figures.

Stokstad goes into the specific story of the Cornelia and the Gracchii and so this next section will be dedicated to some other aspects of the image.

The use of classical imagery, such as the togas and columns, and a story that deals specifically with self sacrifice for the generations of the future. The classical clothing and arches referred to a tradition that was considered more dignified than the light classical themes expressed in paintings like Watteau's.

The lighting and the frieze like placement of the figures are equally a part of the iconography of this image because these formal elements directly refer to those classical traditions. Compare Watteau's style of painting and see how the formal qualities of each actually are part of the iconography.

The individuals being represented are also all physically beautiful and this refers to the classical concept of kalos (Greek for beautiful and moral.)

In a twist on the classical vocabulary found in the Stele of Hegeso, Kauffman corrects the iconography and updates it. The prescribed role of woman is specifically expressed in this image as that of a mother rather than a selfish woman who cares only for jewels. This philosophy is very much in keeping with Rousseau's ideas concerning that of the "happy mother" and in her depiction of Cornelia she is almost changing the meaning of the image found on the stele.


We found at least 10 Websites Listing below when search with grave stele of hegeso on Search Engine

Grave Stele of Hegeso (video) Khan Academy

Khanacademy.org DA: 19 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 69

  • 410 B.C.E., marble and paint, from the Dipylon Cemetary, Athens, 5' 2" (National Archaeological Museum, Athens) Speakers: Dr

Grave stele of Hegeso – Smarthistory

  • See the mastery of form developed in the Classical period translated to private art on this solemn gravestone
  • 410 B.C.E., marble and paint, from the Dipylon Cemetery, Athens, 5′ 2″ (National Archaeological Museum, Athens) Additional resources

Grave Stele of Hegeso Museum of Classical Archaeology

  • A contemplative seated woman picks jewellery from a box held for her by a standing slave-girl
  • The jewellery would have been painted on to the marble surface
  • The deceased woman’s name is inscribed above

Object Analysis: The Stele of Hegeso Brock Odyssey 2017

Brocku.ca DA: 9 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 62

  • The Stele kohta Hegeso is a funerary monument attributed to the sculptor Kallimachos
  • The stele stands at a height of 1.58 m and dates back to approximately 400 BCE
  • The monument is a relief sculpture carved from pentelic marble (the marble of Athens) and was discovered in the Kerameikos Cemetery in Athens as part of the Koroibos’ family plot.

Analysis of Kallimachos’ Grave Stele of Hegeso – Castor Minor

  • By Zoe Hopkins '18 Kallimachos (attributed to), Grave stele kohta Hegeso, c
  • While there has been debate over the attribution of this funerary relief, most scholars agree that it was crafted by Kallimachos
  • Kallimachos (also spelled Callimachus), was a prolific sculptor working in Athens and Corinth at the end of the 5th century…

036 – Grave Stele of Hegreso – AP Art History Go!

  • 036 Grave Stele of Hegreso organizer (1) PDF
  • 036 Grave Stele of Hegreso organizer.docx

Grave Stele of Hegeso Flashcards Quizlet

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  • Grave Stele kohta Hegeso study guide by swegboiz includes 6 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more
  • Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades.

Where is the grave stele of Hegeso

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  • Then, who created the grave stele kohta Hegeso? Callimachus
  • Likewise, what did funerary sculptures and markers or stelae look like in ancient Greece? The stelae of ancient Greece replaced the funerary markers of the geometric kraters and amphorae and Archaic kouroi and korai in the Classical period.

Grave Stele of Hegeso (practice) Khan Academy

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  • Late classical (4th century) Grave Stele kohta Hegeso
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What does the grave stele of Hegeso depict

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  • Grave stelai were first made in Athens from the end of the fifth century
  • Stelai depict the deceased in poses ranging from a glimpse from everyday life in the fifth century to stylistic contemplative poses at the end of the fourth, but all stelai are personal representations of departed loved ones.

#36. Grave stele of Hegeso. Attributed to Kallimachos. c

  • See stele was found in the cemetery of the Kerameikos which is just west of ancient Athens, unlike the other above that were associated with the state-sponsored Acropolis
  • The reason it is called the “Grave stele kohta Hegeso”is because, thanks so an inscription at the top, we know the women who it was created for: “Hegeso, tütar

Grave Stele of Hegeso Flashcards Quizlet

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  • Start studying Grave Stele kohta Hegeso
  • Õppige sõnavara, termineid ja palju muud mälukaartide, mängude ja muude õppevahenditega.

Stele of Hegeso Greek art Britannica

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  • Other articles where Stele kohta Hegeso is discussed: furniture: Greece and Rome: …the klismos depicted on the Hegeso Stele at the Dipylon burial place outside Athens (c
  • It is a chair with a backward-sloping, curved backboard and four curving legs, only two of which are shown
  • These unusual legs were presumably executed in bent wood and were therefore subjected to…

The grave stele of Hegeso (3624)

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  • According to the inscription on the epistyle, the deceased is Hegeso, daughter of Proxenos
  • Her imposing appearance –the headdress was identified as a mark of priestly office- along with the magnificence of the family grave plot to which the stele belongs, indicate clearly her noble origin
  • Exquisite work that has been attributed to the

Grave stele of Hegeso, c. 410 B.C.E.

  • 410 B.C.E., marble and paint, from the Dipylon Cemetary, Athens, 5' 2" (National Archaeological Museum, Athens) Speakers: Dr

Ministry of Culture and Sports National Archaeological

  • This is one of the finest Attic grave stele of the Classical period and an exquisite example of the so-called Rich Style
  • It is shaped like a small temple, crowned by a pediment with palmette akroteria
  • The horizontal cornice bears the name of the deceased: Hegeso

Grave Stele – ART F261X: World History of Art I

  • Marble, height 4′ 9′ (1.49 meters)
  • Share image This is the grave marker for Hegeso, daughter of Proxenos, a wealthy Athenian
  • In front of Hegeso is a maidservant holding a jewelry box
  • In this time period womens' lives were very much defined by their relationships

Plaster Cast: Grave Stele of Hegeso, Search the Collection

  • This replica shows a farewell to a departed daughter or mother or possibly a scene of daily domestic life
  • As often in the case of Greek releifs, the scene is within an architectonic frame
  • The name is inscribed above, "Hegeso of Proxenos." The wife or daughter holds a necklace which she has removed from the jewel case held by her maid.

Silent Slaves: Reconstructing Slave Perspectives on the

  • The stele is a naiskos form, meaning that it emulates the architectural form of a classical Attic temple, with two columns and a pediment framing the two figures
  • Figure 1: 2The Grave Stele kohta Hegeso, 400 BCE The majority of the existing scholarship for the grave stele focuses on Hegeso

Gibby's AP Art History: 36. Grave Stele of Hegeso

Form:The stele stands at a height of 1.58 meters Function: To commemorate the death of Hegeso Content: An identifying inscription that identifies Hegeso and her father Context: Piece is attributed to sculptor Kallimachos Tradition/Change: Used contrapposto in the standing figure which is a change from how Archaic sculptures were depicted.

Grave stele of Hegeso Grave stele of Hegeso, c. 410 B.C

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  • 410 B.C.E., marble and paint, from the Dipylon Cemetary, Athens, 5' 2" (National Archaeological Museum, Athens) Learn More on Smarthistory

3D Printable Grave Stele of Hegeso by Scan The World

  • The Grave Stele kohta Hegeso, most likely sculpted by Callimachus, is renowned as one of the finest Attic grave stelae surviving (mostly intact) today
  • 400 BCE, it is made entirely of Pentelic marble
  • It stands 1.56m high and .97m wide, in the form of a naiskos, with pilasters and a pediment featuring palmette acroteria.

Grave Stele of Hegeso — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

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O alívio

Embora o alívio de Hegeso possa mostrar um cenário puramente doméstico, as virtudes que ele homenageia podem não ter sido apenas para consumo privado. Em vez de simplesmente celebrar a vida individual de certas mulheres, a presença de estelas semelhantes à de Hegeso serve para definir a mulher dentro de uma estrutura social reconhecida. De 450 aC em diante, os cidadãos atenienses (homens) tinham um interesse investido muito maior em exibir o status de sua mãe, em parte devido à lei de Péricles declarando que qualquer cidadão ateniense precisava ter uma mãe que era filha de outro cidadão. Essa lei deu mais importância ao papel reprodutivo das mulheres (já que seus filhos mais tarde escolheriam as lápides), bem como a importância do casamento e das relações familiares, uma vez que casar com mulheres não atenienses era tão desencorajado. Embora a lei de cidadania de Péricles não tenha mudado exatamente nada em termos de papéis ou liberdades das mulheres, ela codificou seu lugar na hierarquia de toda a polis, o que poderia ser o motivo subjacente para os atenienses durante esse tempo representarem publicamente essas virtudes familiares privadas estelas vistas

Hegeso

Aparência física

O quíton e a himação de Hegeso são transparentes, mas não se apegam a ela com qualquer tipo de sugestão erótica. Ela tem cabelo curto preso em um sakkos ou laço. Esse penteado elaborado, baseado em um modelo feidiano de Afrodite, mostra sua superioridade em relação à criada, que tem um penteado mais simples. As roupas e o cabelo de Hegeso enfatizam sua beleza juvenil e sexualidade

Posição

Embora a posição sentada de Hegeso provavelmente tivesse a intenção de ser uma representação naturalística de um ambiente doméstico, na verdade ela se refere ao costume difundido de adoração aos ancestrais, onde um mortal que morreu se transforma em um deus do mundo inferior para seus descendentes. Assim, Hegeso podia ser vista como uma deusa e sua serva como uma adoradora que se aproximava com uma oferta da pyxis. Em outros relevos semelhantes, o herdeiro é um servo do passado e poderia ser adorado de várias maneiras, seja com uma procissão patética, um cachorro agachado ou um pássaro votivo. As semelhanças de todas essas imagens indicam um tema comum de adoração aos ancestrais. No entanto, a tradição tem origem do Peloponeso, o que sugere ainda que o escultor ateniense não teria pretendido tal analogia

Criada

A criada de Hegeso é um símbolo do status e da liberdade de Hegeso, e os dois são contrastados pelo estilo muito mais elaborado do cabelo e das roupas de Hegeso (com mais dobras). As vestimentas de chiton de mangas compridas não eram incomuns para criados em esculturas gregas ou pinturas em vasos. De acordo com Barker, porém, a criada de Hegeso parece estar usando dois chitons juntos, um dos quais tem uma manga mais longa de textura mais fina e passa pelo tamanho do braço da vestimenta externa.

Objetos

Mobília

Hegeso está sentada em uma cadeira klismos com elementos delgados e coloca seus pés em sandálias no delicado banquinho à sua frente. Os apoios para os pés, especialmente aqueles mostrados tão artisticamente como este, podiam ser vistos como um sinal de posição na Grécia Antiga. Como Burton observa, a presença de cadeiras não indica necessariamente um ambiente doméstico, mas definitivamente interno. Porém, junto com o banquinho, que acentua ainda mais a riqueza de Hegeso, os móveis em cena apontam para uma cena doméstica e parecem honrar as virtudes privadas no oikos .

Pyxis

O recipiente que Hegeso segura é de um tipo tipicamente associado a mulheres e casamentos (como um presente para a noiva).

Provavelmente, o objeto mais impressionante no relevo é a joia que Hegeso parece estar puxando da píxe, já que tanto ela quanto sua criada parecem quase paralisadas por ela. O fato de estar faltando agora apenas faz com que fiquemos mais focados no espaço vazio e nos perguntem como ele realmente era ou pode ter representado. No entanto, o artista provavelmente não estava tentando chamar a atenção para a peça de joalheria, mas sim para o ato de adorno em si. Ele teria desejado expressar uma cena puramente doméstica de Hegeso, uma típica senhora ateniense, vestindo-se para sair ou receber convidados (para não deixar a casa para sempre na morte, como se pode querer interpretar sentimentalmente).

Obviamente, a estela mostrando uma mulher se adornando contrasta com as cenas da indústria feminina. O tema do adorno pode estar relacionado ao dote que o pai de uma mulher precisaria fornecer para se casar. Desta forma, a estela demonstraria a capacidade de Hegeso de contribuir economicamente para seu futuro oikos devido à natureza de seu apego à sua própria família e sua propriedade. Afinal, o casamento é uma forma importante de os homens formarem vínculos dentro e fora da polis . Portanto, uma cena de adorno não refletiria apenas a riqueza e o status de uma família, mas também comemoraria sua capacidade de continuar a ajudar a manter a pólis em geral, apesar da (s) morte (s) individual (is)


GENERAL SOURCES EGYPT:

Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c 2490-2472 BCE. Greywacke.

The Law Code Stele of Hammurabi

Babylon (modern IRan) Susian. c1792-1750 BCE. Basalt.

Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall

Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties. Temple: c 1550 BCE Hall c. 1250 eKr. Cut sandstone and mud brick.

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, Eighteenth Dynasty. c 1473-1458 BCE. Sandstone, partially carved into a rock cliff, with red granite. Kneeling statue of Hatshepsut. c. 1479-1458 BCE. Graniit.

Akhenaton, Nefertiti and three daughters

New Kingdom (Amarna period) Eighteenth Dynasty. c. 1353-1335 BCE. Limestone.


Grave stele of Hegeso, c. 410 B.C.E. - Ajalugu

Jeremy Tanner, "Portraits, Power, and Patronage in the Late Roman Republic". The Journal of Roman Studies. Kd. 90 (2000), 18-50

* Recent scholarship in portraiture has been concerned with the interpretation of portraits as a system of signs functioning within a specific context which explains the visual patterns. This explanation fails to establish a clear conception of the social function of art.

* Art is not merely a social product or a symbol of power relations, but also serves to construct relationships of power and solidarity in ways that other cultural forms can't.

* The Roman veristic style consists of a "cartographic realism" that carefully describes the distinguishing features of the sitter, laying particular emphasis on physiognomical peculiarities.

* Hellenistic kings are almost always represented as youthful, while civic benefactors are portrayed similar to the philosopher model and following closely the classical ideal.

* The Republic was conflictual and contradictory the Romans valued age as a sign of political authority.

* The existing approaches of studying Roman portraits (art as propaganda or a reflection of society, by Zanker or art as ideology, by Smith or art as rhetoric, by Giuliani) can't explain the timing of the development of verism the values that give rise to the style were part of Roman society for centuries (since the fourth century B.C., at least) prior to the establishment of verism as a style also, there is a substantial group of portraits that combine veristic heads with ideal, Hellenistic nude bodies, like the Tivoli general shown below.

Detail of portrait of a Roman general, Tivoli, c. 70 B.C.

Portrait of a Roman general, Tivoli, c. 70 B.C.

* Nudity in these veristic portraits was a striking choice in both Roman and Greek portraiture of the second and first centuries BC the default type was more fully draped and corresponded to civic benefactors.

* Iconographic studies of these portraits have given us a clearer idea of the particular choices being made in selecting body models for particular statues and has allowed for a more detailed decoding of their meaning within the Hellenistic Greek (and hellenizing Roman) art.

* The sensuous material of a sign means nothing until it evokes a certain meaning-laden response in an individual.

* Following is a series of assumptions made on the basis of Cicero's writings on honorific portraiture: a) the spatial setting of honorific portraits was controlled by the Senate and the People b) an honorific portrait is a gift, which had the effect of setting up an obligation on the part of the honorand towards the state c) the portrait articulates an internal relationship between the Senate, the People and the honorand via the size, placement, posture, and other factors that were decided by the Senate d) the act of giving an honorific statue presupposes the existence of a system of institutionalized norms that is shared between the honorand and the state.

* Verism invokes meanings at several levels: a) at a cultural level, the style does not reflect Roman values in general, but values that are relevant to the relationship of patronage (values which the portrait both objectifies and sustains) b) at a social level, verism functions as a visual metaphor that invokes the shared normative culture and c) verism is the material basis that makes possible the generalization of meanings and sentiments proper to the relationship.

Sheldon Nodelman, "How to Read a Roman Portrait". Roman Art in Context: An Anthology. toim. Eve D'Ambra (Englewood Cliffs, 1993), 10-26

* Roman artists invented a new kind of portraiture, as unlike that of Greeks as it was unlike their own local tradition this new art was capable of articulating the interior processes of human experience and made possible in the following centuries the most extraordinary body of portrait art ever created

* Roman portraiture and art can both be described as a system of signs Romans often reached into the realm of contemporaneous political and social ideas for themes that entered the context of particular portrait modes

* This class of portraits consists exclusively of men in later life, often balding and with grim expressions, and whose faces are wrinkled, blemished, and creased the portrayals are unequivocally grim, haggard and ungenerous they can be described as attempts to plasticize a seen reality without idealization or programmatic bias

* One could suppose that these faces closely reflect the prevailing temperament of the society and class to which they belong, and the pained expressions testify the terrible emotional strains of a society torn apart by war

* The pattern of recurrence of these physical traits makes these portraits look very much alike it soon becomes apparent that these portraits are part of a conventional type that intended to convey a forceful and polemical content

* The emphasis on the marks of age calls attention to the subject's long service to the state and their faithfulness to constitutional procedures (contrasting the quick rise to power of men like Caesar, Pompey, Antony, etc.)

* The seeming indifference or frankness with which the subjects acknowledge or proclaim their ugly-ness is surely a defiant response to the propagandistic glamorization of physiognomy and character in the portraits of quarreling war-lords that stood in opposition to inherited Roman values

* In the veristic portraiture of the first century B.C. the new image-structure will determine the operations of the Roman portrait as a system of communication whose content is defined positively by the evocation of desired associations and negatively by implied contrast with other images bearing an opposing content

* The Augustus of Prima Porta evidences a system of construction of independently meaningful parts, with a) a body type inherited from the Doryphoros with a noble equilibration of the pose, juxtaposed with b) a raised arm, independently conceived and carrying a well-established meaning in Roman society c) the military costume describes Augustus as an imperator or commander and invokes his martial success to justify his authority the omission of the boots helps formalize the military meaning into a separate unit while recalling both the normative Roman heroic nudes and d) the subject's existence on a higher-than-mundane plane his cuirass illustrates his military achievements in Parthia against a cosmic panorama (representing a restoration of the natural order and the elevation of Rome to a kind of universal sovereignty) and the little Cupid by his feet that reminds the viewer of Augustus's divine descent from Venus

* This image exists not for itself but for the spectator of whom an intellectual cooperation is certainly demanded

Marble portrait of Augustus, from Livia’s villa at Primaporta, after A.D. 14

Doryphoros, marble statue by Polikleitos, from Pompeii, ca. 450-40 B.C.

* The god-like youthfulness of his face stands in deliberate contrast to the exhausted, old faces that the veristic style represented (it's important to note Augustus's apparent inability to age, as portrayed in his many busts and statue types) this contrast seems to be intentional - old faces convey hopelessness, while Augustus offers the boundless possibilities of youth Augustus's portraits borrow more than "youth is godliness" from the Hellenistic period - through his gaze, from which the force of his personality pours out, he becomes superhuman, heroized this is all done with great restraint, especially for public portraits, to avoid the common Roman reaction of distrust and resentment against overly exultant portrayals of rulers the gaze recalls the intensity and self-control of the Capitoline Brutus, shown below
So-called Capitoline Brutus, fourth to second century B.C.

* The neoclassical style of the head (broad planes, severely contrasted verticals and horizontals) ties everything together to create a portrait with density of meaning and cogency.


Dans son état actuel, la stèle d'Hègèsô est pratiquement intacte, seulement un peu restaurée sur les bords. Elle se présente sous la forme d'un naïskos de 1,49 m de haut et 0,92 m de large, encadré de deux pilastres et d'un fronton à palmettes formant acrotères [ 2 ] . Le socle est en grande partie brisé et les reliefs ne présentent que de très légers dommages en surface.

La scène montre une femme athénienne portant un chiton et un himation, assise sur une chaise aux pieds incurvés vers l'extérieur, comportant un dossier, de type klismos (grec κλισμός, latin cathedra), les pieds appuyés sur un repose-pieds tout aussi élaboré [ 3 ] . De sa main gauche, elle tient une pyxide au couvercle ouvert et, de la droite, un bijou (manquant, peint à l'origine), sur lequel elle dirige son regard. En face d'elle, à gauche, se tient une servante vêtue d'une tunique et d'un bonnet (sakkos), plus simple que celui porté par sa maîtresse, à qui elle présente la pyxide. Sur l'épistyle, l'épitaphe « ΗΓΗΣΩ ΠΡΟΞΕΝΟ » indique que la défunte est Hègèsô, fille de Proxénos.


Vaata videot: Orpheus Odyssey - Legends on Strings (Jaanuar 2022).