Artiklid

485. pommitusrühm

485. pommitusrühm

485. pommitusrühm

Ajalugu - Raamatud - Lennukid - Ajajoon - Komandörid - Peamised alused - Komponendid - Määratud

Ajalugu

485. pommitusrühm oli B-24 rühmitus, kes võitles mais 1944 kuni aprillini 1945 Itaalias viieteistkümnenda õhujõuga, osaledes peamiselt strateegilises pommitamisrünnakus.

Rühm loodi Ameerika Ühendriikides septembris 1943. Märtsis-aprillis 1944 kolis rühm Vahemere äärde, maapealne ešelon läks Itaaliasse ja õhusõiduk Tuneesiasse lisatreeningutele. Rühmitus asus lahingusse mais 1944 ja veetis suurema osa sõjast strateegiliste sihtmärkide ründamisel üle okupeeritud Euroopa ja Saksamaa. Rühmitus pälvis 26. juunil 1944 Viinis nafta rafineerimistehase rünnaku eest väärilise üksuse tsitaadi.

Rühm osales ka mitmetes taktikalistes missioonides. Rooma ründamise ajal oli rühmitus üks kümnest B-24 rühmitusest, kes osalesid 17. mail 1944. aastal rünnakul Piombioni, San Stefano ja Porto Ferraio sadamate vastu Elba sadamates, et takistada varude jõudmist Saksa rindele. rida. Augustis 1944 ründas see sildu, sadamaid ja Saksa vägesid, et toetada operatsiooni Dragoon, sissetungi Lõuna -Prantsusmaale. Märtsis ja aprillis 1945 kasutati seda Briti kaheksanda armee toetamiseks Põhja -Itaalia viimase rünnaku ajal.

1945. aasta mais naasis rühmitus Ameerika Ühendriikidesse ja augustis nimetati see ümber 45. pommitusrühmaks (Very Heavy). See hakkas treenima B-29-ga, kuid ei kasutanud seda kunagi lahingutes. 21. märtsil 1946 määrati see strateegilise õhuväe juhtkonda, kuid inaktiveeriti 4. augustil 1946.

Raamatud

Lennukid

September 1943-mai 1945: konsolideeritud B-24 Liberator
c. august 1945-august 1946: Boeing B-29 Superfortress

Ajaskaala

14. september 1943Moodustati 485. pommitusrühmaks (raske)
20. septembrilAktiveeritud
Märts-aprill 1944Vahemere ja viieteistkümnenda õhujõudude juurde
Mail 1945Meile
Augustil 1945Ümberkujundatud 485. pommitusrühmaks (väga raske)
21. mail 1946Strateegilise õhukomando juurde
4. august 1946Inaktiveeritud

Ülemad (ametisse nimetamise kuupäevaga)

Kolonel Walter E ArnoldJr: 27. sept 1943
Kolonel John P Tomhave: c. 29. august 1944
Kolonel John B Cornett: 17. veebruar 1945
Kolonelleitnant Douglas M Cairns :, 23. märts 1945-unkn
Kolonelleitnant Richard T Lively: 6. august 1945
Kolonel John W White: 15. sept 1945
Kolk Walter S Lee: 1946-1946

Peamised alused

Fairmont AAFld, Neb: 20. september 1943–11. Märts 194
Venosa, Itaalia: aprill 1944–15. Mai 1945
Sioux Falls AAFld, SD: 30. mai 1945
Sioux City AAB, Iowa: 24. juuli 1945
Smoky Hill AAFld, Kan: 8. september 1945–4. August 1946

Komponentüksused

506. pommitusmalevas: 1946
828. pommitusmalevas: 1943-1946
829. pommitusmalevas: 1943–1946
830. pommitusmalevas: 1943–1946
831. pommitusmalevas: 1943–1946

Määratud

1944-45: 55. pommitustiib; Viieteistkümnes õhujõud


485. pommitusrühm (H)

Asukoht. 39 ° 0,979 ′ N, 104 & 51,31 ′ W. Marker asub Ameerika Ühendriikide õhujõudude akadeemias, Colorado, El Paso maakonnas. Marker asub Ameerika Ühendriikide õhujõudude akadeemia kalmistul, Parade Loopil Stadium Boulevardist lääne pool, läände reisides paremal. Puudutage kaardi vaatamiseks. Marker asub selles postkontoris: USAF Academy CO 80840, Ameerika Ühendriigid. Puudutage juhiseid.

Muud läheduses asuvad markerid. Sellest markerist jalutuskäigu kaugusel on vähemalt 8 muud markerit. 379. th pommigrupp (H) (siin, selle märgi kõrval) II maailmasõja purilennukipiloodid (siin, selle märgi kõrval) 306. th pommitusrühm (H) (siin, selle markeri kõrval) 95 th Pommirühm H (siin, selle märgi kõrval) 492. pommirühm (H) ja 801. pommirühm (P) (siin, selle markeri kõrval) 416. pommitusrühm (L)

(siin, selle tähise kõrval) 20. võitlejate rühm (siin, selle tähise kõrval) 344. th Bomb Group (M) AAF (siin, selle märgi kõrval). Ameerika Ühendriikide õhujõudude akadeemia kõigi markerite loendi ja kaardi vaatamiseks puudutage.

Lisateavet selle markeri kohta. USAF Akadeemia territooriumile sisenemiseks peab olema kehtiv isikut tõendav dokument.

Vaata ka. . .
1. 485. pommirühmaliit. (Esitatud 7. aprillil 2021, William Fischer, Jenn of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
2. 485. pommigrupp edasi Facebook. (Esitatud 7. aprillil 2021, William Fischer, Jenn of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
3. 485. pommitusrühm. (Esitatud 7. aprillil 2021, William Fischer, Jenn of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
4. 485. pommitusrühm. (Esitatud 7. aprillil 2021, William Fischer, Jenn of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
5. 485. pommigrupp. (Esitatud 7. aprillil 2021, William Fischer, Jenn of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)
6. 485. pommitusrühm. (Esitatud 7. aprillil 2021, William Fischer, Jenn of Scranton, Pennsylvania.)


485. pommigrupp

B-24 Liberator (järjekorranumber 44-41068), 485. pommigrupp, 15. õhujõud lennul. Käsitsi kirjutatud allkiri tagurpidi: „Kollane? 44-41068. ” B-24J-195-CO #44-41068 485. BG-828. BS-15. AF See õhukonditsioneer hävis 10. oktoobril 1944 Venosa lennuväljal maapinnal toimunud tulekahjus

2LT John D. "Dud" Crouchley Pilot 485. BG - 828. BS - 15. AF KIA - 28. juuni 1944 hoidis tugevalt kahjustatud lennukit stabiilsena, võimaldades meeskonnal turvaliselt välja pääseda.

John D. Crouchley Crew 485. BG - 828. BS seisab L kuni R: Ralph F. Perillo (G), Thomas A. Langstaff (TG), Edward G. Johnson (BTG), Eugene A. Lascotte (NG), Donald R. Turner (FE), William J. Van Meer (RO) Põlvitades vasakult paremale: John D. Crouchley (P), Allen G. Meister (B), Forrest J. Leveille (N), William J. Hays (CP) See meeskond lasti maha 28. juunil 1944. Crouchley oli KIA. Ülejäänud meeskond (miinus Meister) jäi ellu ja neist tehti sõjavang. Meister oli eskadronist pommitajaks tehtud juba paar päeva varem ja ta polnud pardal, kui see meeskond maha tulistati.

F/O Elmer D. Kohleri ​​kaaspiloot Jonas Latwaitis Crew 485. BG - 829. BS KIA - 9. juuni 1944 Thal, Austria

2LT Marion E. Shelor Navigator Jonas Latwaitis Meeskond 485. BG - 829. BS - 15. AF Tulistati alla ja tabati 9. juunil 1944 Austrias Talli lähistel. Üks kolmest ellujäänud oma meeskonnast.

TSGT Jack D. Mizrahi raadiooperaator Jonas Latwaitis Crew 485. BG - 829. BS - 15. AF

2LT Morris Burney Navigator Jonas Latwaitis Crew 485. BG - 829. BS - 15. AF Tulistati alla 9. juunil 1944 POW

John Latwaitis Crew 485. BG - 15. AF, seistes vasakult paremale: Ed Wals (NG), Otis Vinson (FE), Jack Marahi (RO), Paul Combs, TG, Simon Ventimiglia (BTG), Edgar Pierce (TTG) Põlvitades vasakult Paremal: Marion Shelor (B), Jonas Latwaitis (P), Elmer Kohler (CP), Morris Burney (P) Istuv: tuvastamata maapealse meeskonna mees See meeskond lasti maha 9. juunil 1944. Ainult Shelor, Burney ja Vinson jäid ellu

831. pommieskadroni embleem 831. BS oli osa 485. BG -st - 15. AF

Tiib oli algselt 485. pommitusrühm (raske) ja aktiveeriti 20. septembril 1943. [6] Selle algsed eskadrillid olid äsja aktiveeritud 828., 829. ja 830. pommitusmalevas, millega paar päeva hiljem liitus 831. pommituseskadrill Idaho osariigis Gowen Fieldis. [7] 831. oli kogenud konsolideeritud B-24 Liberator eskaader, kes oli 11. allveelaevade eskadronina sooritanud allveelaevade vastaseid sõjaülesandeid. [7] Rühm lähetati Goweni, kus ta sai oma esialgse kaadri 29. pommitusrühmast [8] ja määrati teise õhujõudude koosseisu B-24-ga Gowenis ja Fairmonti armee lennuväljal Nebraskas väljaõppeks. Rühm lähetati Vahemere operatsiooniteatrisse (MTO) märtsis ja aprillis 1944. [6]

Kuigi maapealne ešelon oli Lõuna -Itaaliasse paigutatud 1944. aasta aprilliks, peeti õhusõiduk Tuneesias täiendõppeks kinni. Rühm astus lahingusse viieteistkümnenda õhuväega mais 1944. 485. osales väga kaugel strateegilistes pommitamismissioonides vaenlase sõjaliste, tööstus- ja transpordieesmärkide kallal Itaalias, Prantsusmaal, Saksamaal, Austrias, Ungaris, Rumeenias ja Jugoslaavias, pommitades sorteerimisalasid, naftatöötlemistehased, lennuväljad, rasketööstus ja muud strateegilised eesmärgid. [6]

Rühmitus sai 26. juunil 1944. aastal võitlejate ägeda opositsiooni vastu võitlemise ja nafta rafineerimistehase ründamise eest auväärse üksuse tsitaadi. 485. viidi läbi ka mõningaid toetus- ja keelamisoperatsioone. See tabas 1944. aasta augustis sildu, sadamaid ja vägede koondumisi, et aidata operatsiooni Dragoon, sissetungi Lõuna -Prantsusmaale. See tabas 1945. aasta märtsis ja aprillis side- ja muid sihtmärke, et toetada Briti kaheksanda armee edasiliikumist Põhja -Itaalias. [6 ] See lendas oma 187. ja viimase lahinguülesande Austrias Linzi vastu, enne kui valmistus Ameerika Ühendriikidesse naasma ja uuesti varustama. [9]

485. naasis USA-sse 1945. aasta mais ja oli programmeeritud lähetamiseks Vaikse ookeani operatsioonide teatrisse (PTO) väga raske pommitusrühmana Boeing B-29 Superfortress. [Vajalik viide] Paljud MTO lahinguveteranid demobiliseeriti saabumisel Ameerika Ühendriigid ja Lõuna -Dakota osariigis Sioux Falls'i armeelennuväljal reformitud mai lõpus väike personalikaader. [Vajalik tsitaat] Rühm määrati Iowas väljaõppeks teisele õhujõududele. Kuna B-29 rühmadel oli ainult kolm lahingueskadrilli, inaktiveeriti augustis 831. pommitusmalevas. [7] Seejärel kolis rühm paberil [10] septembris Kansasisse Smoky Hilli armee lennuväljale. [6]

Grupp jäi pärast Jaapani alistumist tegevteenistusse. Märtsis 1946 sai kontinentaalsetest õhujõududest strateegiline õhuvägi ja teine ​​õhujõud asendati viieteistkümnenda õhuväega kui rühma vahepealne staap. Samal ajal määrati 44. pommitusrühmast gruppi 506. pommitusmalevas. [11] 1946. aasta augustis määrati 485. personali ja varustuse ümber 97. pommitusrühma ning 485. inaktiveeriti. [6] [12]


Ajalugu [redigeeri | allika muutmine]

Teine maailmasõda [redigeeri | allika muutmine]

Konsolideeritud B-24 Librator

Tiib moodustati algselt kui 485. pommitusrühm (Raske) ja aktiveeriti 20. septembril 1943. Ε ] 831. oli kogenud konsolideeritud B-24 Liberator eskadrill, kes oli viinud läbi allveelaevade vastaseid sõjaülesandeid. 11. allveelaevade eskadrill. Ε ] Rühm saadeti Goweni, kus ta sai oma esialgse kaadri 29. pommitusrühmast Ζ ] ning määrati teisele õhuväele, et treenida koos B-24-ga Gowenis ja Fairmonti armee lennuväljal Nebraskas . Rühm lähetati 1944. aasta märtsis ja aprillis Vahemere operatsiooniteatrisse (MTO). Δ ]

Kuigi maapealne ešelon oli Lõuna -Itaaliasse lähetatud 1944. aasta aprilliks, peeti õhusõiduk Tuneesias täiendõppeks kinni. Rühm astus lahingusse viieteistkümnenda õhuväega mais 1944. 485. osales väga kaugel strateegilistes pommitamismissioonides vaenlase sõjaliste, tööstus- ja transpordieesmärkide kallal Itaalias, Prantsusmaal, Saksamaal, Austrias, Ungaris, Rumeenias ja Jugoslaavias, pommitades sorteerimisalasid, naftatöötlemistehased, lennuväljad, rasketööstus ja muud strateegilised eesmärgid. Δ ]

Rühmitus sai 26. juunil 1944. aastal ägeda võitlejate vastuseisu võitmise ja Viinis asuva naftatöötlemistehase ründamise eest auväärse üksuse tsitaadi. 485. viidi läbi ka mõningaid toetus- ja keelamisoperatsioone. See tabas 1944. aasta augustis sildu, sadamaid ja vägede koondumisi, et aidata operatsiooni Dragoon, sissetungi Lõuna -Prantsusmaale. See tabas 1945. aasta märtsis ja aprillis side- ja muid sihtmärke, et toetada Briti kaheksanda armee edasiliikumist Põhja -Itaalias. Δ ] See lendas oma 187. ja viimase lahinguülesande Austrias Linzi vastu, enne kui valmistus USA-sse naasma ja uuesti varustama. Η ]

485. naasis USA-sse 1945. aasta mais ja oli programmeeritud paigutamiseks Vaikse ookeani operatsiooniteatrisse (PTO) väga raske pommitusrühmana Boeing B-29 Superfortress. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Paljud MTO lahinguveteranid demobiliseerusid USA -sse saabudes ning väike kaader isikkoosseisu reformiti mai lõpus Lõuna -Dakotas Sioux Falls'i armee lennuväljal. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Rühm määrati uuesti Iowa väljaõppeks teisele õhujõududele. Kuna B-29 rühmadel oli ainult kolm lahingueskadrilli, inaktiveeriti augustis 831. pommitusmalevas. Ε ] Seejärel liikus rühm paberil ja#9110 ] septembris Smoky Hilli armee lennuväljale Kansasesse. Δ ]

Grupp jäi pärast Jaapani alistumist tegevteenistusse. Märtsis 1946 said mandrilised õhujõud Strateegiline õhuvägi ja teine ​​õhuvägi asendati viieteistkümnenda õhujõududega kui rühma vahepealne staap. Samaaegselt määrati gruppi 506. pommitusmalevas 44. pommitusrühmast. ⎗ ] Augustis 1946 määrati 485. personali ja varustuse ümber 97. pommitusrühma ja 485. inaktiveeriti. Δ ] ⎘ ]

Matadori ja Mace'i ajastu [redigeeri | allika muutmine]

585. taktikalise raketirühma plaaster

TM-61 Matador Missile oma kanderaketis Saksamaal

1954. aastal alustas USAF Saksamaale tiibrakettide TM-61 Matador paigutamist. Aastaks 1956 oli kolm eskadrilli paigas ja USAFE korraldas 701. taktikalise raketi tiiva koos alluva rühmaga igas põhibaasis, kus Matadorsid paiknesid. ⎙ ] 585. taktikaliste rakettide rühmitus aktiveeriti Saksamaal Bitburgi lennubaasis septembris 1956 1. taktikalise raketi eskadroni ja kahe tugieskadroni juhtimiseks. ⎚ ]

Varsti pärast aktiveerimist alustas rühmitus oma TM-61A rakettide uuendamist TM-61C-deks. ⎛ ] TM-61C oli varustatud Shannicle'i juhtimissüsteemiga, mis genereeris võrgu, mida rakett sai kasutada navigeerimiseks, asendades TM-61A maapinna õhuroolsüsteemidega. Rühm osales Matadorsi perioodilistel katsetel Liibüas Wheelus AB -s. ⎜ ]

Aastal 1958 asendas USAFE 701. tiiva 38. taktikalise raketi tiivaga administratiivse sammuga, et hoida tegevväelasi, mille juured on pärit Teisest maailmasõjast. ⎝ ] Samaaegselt asendati 1. eskadrill 71. taktikalise raketi eskadroniga, mis on II maailmasõja 38. pommitusrühma üks ajaloolisi elemente. Matador oli vananemas ja viimane Matador võeti Victori (tuuma) hoiatuselt välja 30. juunil 1962. ⎞ ]

Rühmitus asendas oma Matadorid rakettidega TM-76 Mace (hiljem MGM-13). [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Need raketid ei tuginenud maapealsetele signaalidele, vaid kasutasid pardal olevat radarit, et sobitada maastik raketi pardale salvestatud kaardiga. 1962. aastal inaktiveeriti 585. ja tema kaasrühmad Saksamaal ning raketi eskadronid määrati otse 38. tiivale. ⎝ ] Samal päeval lõpetati Bitburgi viimane Matador. ⎞ ]

Maapinnal käivitatud tiibrakettide ajastu [redigeeri | allika muutmine]

BGM-109 Gryphon transporteri püstikuheitja

The 485. taktikalise raketi tiib käivitati augustis 1984. Belgias asuvas Florennesi lennubaasis. Esimene rakett Gryphon saabus 28. augustil ja#9119 ] ning tiib alustas Gryphoni opereerimist 1985. aastast kuni keskmise ulatusega tuumajõudude lepingu rakendamiseni 1988. aastal. 911 ]

Tiib ja selle alus olid peavärava lähedal perioodiliste rahuliikumise protestide sihtmärk. ⎠ ] Augustis 1988 külastas Florennesit kümne mehega Nõukogude inspekteerimisrühm, et kindlustada lepingute järgimine. ⎡ ] Tiib inaktiveeriti 1989. aastal Ameerika vägede väljaviimisel Florennesist. Ώ ]


Sisu

2003. aastal aktiveeritud 485 AEW oli 24 McDonnell Douglas F-15C Eagle hävituslennuki ja 46 õhusõiduki Lockheed C-130H Hercules komposiittiib ning enam kui 3500 töötajat 82 erinevast asukohast. C-130-d esindasid selle lennuki üht suurimat lahingugruppi. [4]

Tiib aktiveeriti operatsiooni Iraagi vabadus jaoks ning see koosnes lennukitest ja lennuväe regulaarsest personalist Langley AFB -st, Virginia ja Eglin AFB, Florida. Siia kuulusid ka Lääne -Virginia, [4] Tennessee, Missouri, Kentucky, Oklahoma ja Delaware Airi rahvuskaartide lennukid ja kaardiväelased [5] ning Niagara Fallsist pärit reservväelased.

3. maiks 2003 oli tiiva C-130 osa lennanud 1199 missiooni, 3354 lendu, 7451 tundi, vedanud 9382 tonni kaupa ja 8800 reisijat ning kiitis missioonivõimeliseks üle 90 protsendi. Kui F-15-d 17. aprillil lennuoperatsioonid lõpule viisid, olid nad koostanud 581 lendu, lennanud üle 4000 tunni ja säilitanud oma missioonivõime üle 83 protsendi. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Tiib inaktiveeriti 2003. aasta mai alguses, viimased liikmed naasid USA -sse sama aasta septembris. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Teine maailmasõda Edit

Tiib moodustati algselt kui 485. pommitusrühm (Raske) ja aktiveeriti 20. septembril 1943. [6] Selle algsed eskadrillid olid äsja aktiveeritud 828., 829. ja 830. pommitusmalevas, millega paar päeva hiljem liitus Idaho osariigis Gowen Fieldis asuv 831. pommitusmalevas. [7] 831. oli kogenud konsolideeritud B-24 Liberator eskaader, kes oli 11. allveelaevade eskadronina sooritanud allveelaevade vastast sõda. [7] Rühm lähetati Goweni, kus ta sai oma esialgse kaadri 29. pommitusrühmast [8] ja määrati teise õhujõudude koosseisu B-24-ga Gowenis ja Fairmonti armee lennuväljal Nebraskas väljaõppeks. Rühm lähetati 1944. aasta märtsis ja aprillis Vahemere operatsiooniteatrisse (MTO). [6]

Kuigi maapealne ešelon oli Lõuna -Itaaliasse paigutatud 1944. aasta aprilliks, peeti õhusõiduk Tuneesias täiendõppeks kinni. Rühm asus 1944. aasta mais lahingusse viieteistkümnenda õhuväega. 485. osales väga kaugetel strateegilistel pommitamismissioonidel vaenlase sõjaliste, tööstus- ja transpordieesmärkide kallal Itaalias, Prantsusmaal, Saksamaal, Austrias, Ungaris, Rumeenias ja Jugoslaavias, pommitades sorteerimisalasid, naftatöötlemistehased, lennuväljad, rasketööstus ja muud strateegilised eesmärgid. [6]

Rühmitus sai 26. juunil 1944. aastal võitlejate ägeda opositsiooni vastu võitlemise ja nafta rafineerimistehase ründamise eest auväärse üksuse tsitaadi. 485. viidi läbi ka mõningaid toetus- ja keelamisoperatsioone. See tabas 1944. aasta augustis sildu, sadamaid ja vägede koondumisi, et aidata operatsiooni Dragoon, sissetungi Lõuna -Prantsusmaale. See tabas 1945. aasta märtsis ja aprillis side- ja muid sihtmärke, et toetada Briti kaheksanda armee edasiliikumist Põhja -Itaalias. [6] See lendas oma 187. ja viimase lahinguülesande Austrias Linzi vastu, enne kui valmistus Ameerika Ühendriikidesse naasma ja uuesti varustama. [9]

485. naasis USA-sse 1945. aasta mais ja oli programmeeritud paigutamiseks Vaikse ookeani operatsiooniteatrisse (PTO) väga raske pommitusrühmana Boeing B-29 Superfortress. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Paljud MTO lahinguveteranid demobiliseeriti USA -sse saabudes ning väike kaader isikkoosseisu reformiti mai lõpus Lõuna -Dakotas Sioux Falls'i armee lennuväljal. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] [10] Rühm määrati Iowas väljaõppeks teisele õhujõududele. Kuna B-29 rühmadel oli ainult kolm lahinguüksust, inaktiveeriti augustis 831. pommitusmalevas. [7] Seejärel kolis rühm paberil [11] septembris Kansasesse Smoky Hilli armee lennuväljale. [6]

Grupp jäi pärast Jaapani alistumist tegevteenistusse. Märtsis 1946 said mandrilised õhujõud Strateegiline õhuvägi ja Teine õhuvägi asendati viieteistkümnenda õhujõududega kui rühma vahepealne staap. Samaaegselt määrati gruppi 506. pommitusmalevas 44. pommitusrühmast. [12] Augustis 1946 määrati 485. personali ja varustuse ümber 97. pommitusrühma ning 485. inaktiveeriti. [6] [13]

Matador ja Mace ajastu Edit

1954. aastal alustas USAF Saksamaale tiibrakettide TM-61 Matador paigutamist. Aastaks 1956 oli kolm eskadrilli paigas ja USAFE korraldas 701. taktikalise raketi tiiva koos alluva rühmaga igas põhibaasis, kus Matadorsid paiknesid. [14] 585. taktikaliste rakettide rühmitus aktiveeriti Saksamaal Bitburgi lennubaasis septembris 1956 1. taktikalise raketi eskadroni ja kahe tugieskadroni juhtimiseks. [15]

Varsti pärast aktiveerimist alustas rühmitus oma TM-61A rakettide uuendamist TM-61C-deks. [16] TM-61C oli varustatud Shannicle'i juhtimissüsteemiga, mis genereeris võrgu, mida rakett sai kasutada navigeerimiseks, asendades TM-61A maapinna õhuroolsüsteemidega. Rühm osales Matadorsi perioodilistel katsetel Liibüas Wheelus AB -s. [17]

Aastal 1958 asendas USAFE administratiivse sammuga 701. tiiva 38. taktikalise raketi tiivaga, et hoida tegevväelasi, mille juured on pärit II maailmasõjast. [18] Samaaegselt asendati 1. eskadrill 71. taktikalise raketi eskaadriga, mis on II maailmasõja 38. pommirühma üks ajaloolisi elemente. Matador hakkas vananema ja viimane Matador võeti Victori (tuuma) häireseadmest välja 30. juunil 1962. [19]

Rühmitus asendas oma Matadorid rakettidega TM-76 Mace (hiljem MGM-13). [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Need raketid ei tuginenud maapealsetele signaalidele, vaid kasutasid pardal olevat radarit, et sobitada maastik raketi pardale salvestatud kaardiga. 1962. aastal inaktiveeriti 585. ja tema kaasrühmad Saksamaal ning raketi eskadronid määrati otse 38. tiivale. [18] Samal päeval lõpetati Bitburgi viimane Matador. [19]

Maapinnal käivitatud tiibrakettide ajastu Muuda

The 485. taktikalise raketi tiib käivitati augustis 1984. Belgias asuvas Florennesi lennubaasis. Esimene rakett Gryphon saabus 28. augustil [20] ja tiib alustas Gryphoni opereerimist 1985. aastast kuni keskmise ulatusega tuumajõudude lepingu rakendamiseni 1988. aastal. [1]

Tiib ja selle alus olid peavärava lähedal perioodiliste rahuliikumise protestide sihtmärk. [21] 1988. aasta augustis külastas kümneliikmeline Nõukogude inspektsioonirühm Florennesit, et kindlustada lepingute järgimine. [22] Tiib inaktiveeriti 1989. aastal, kui Ameerika väed Florennesist välja tõmbusid. [1]


Otsime missiooniaruandeid (eriti "laadimisloendeid") 15. õhujõudude, 485. pommigrupi, 828. pommisaatkonna jaoks. II maailmasõda

Püüan leida laadimisnimekirju missioonidele, millega II maailmasõja ajal Itaalias Venosast 485. pommigrupi 828 pommisaatkond lendas.

Olen saanud kaks rulli mikrofilmi

Õhuväe ajalooliste uuringute agentuur, 600 Chennault Circle, hoone 1405, Maxwelli õhujõudude baas, AL 36112-6424.

AGA, enamik lehti on lugemiseks liiga tuhmid ja mõned nähtavad lastinimekirjad on mõeldud lendudele, mis ei jõudnud tagasi- kas KIA või vangi.

Olen ostnud raamatuid ka 485. pommigrupi organisatsioonilt.   Neil on missioonide kokkuvõtted, kuid enamik neist näib olevat kirjutatud ühe navigaatori poolt ega ole ametlikud.   kui meeskond on kadunud.

Re: Otsin missiooniaruandeid (eriti "laadimisloendeid") 15. õhujõudude, 485. pommigrupi, 828. pommisaatkonna jaoks. II maailmasõda
Rebecca Collier 09.10.2018 10:42 (autor Peter Rhoades)

Täname, et postitasite oma taotluse Ajaloo Keskusele!

USA armee õhujõudude üksused, mida otsite, on saadaval ainult rahvusarhiivist mikrofilmil. Sisu on ilmselt samad kirjed, mille saite juba õhuväe ajalooliste uuringute agentuurilt. Kahekordseks kontrollimiseks otsige indeksist õhuväe ajaloo mikrofilm, mis on saadaval aadressil https://www.airforcehistoryindex.org/, ja lugege kokkuvõtet, veendumaks, et need ei dubleeri seda, mida olete saanud.   Rahvusarhiivi jaoks College Parkis - tekstiline viide (RDT2), et rullid oma vahi alt kätte saada, peab RDT2 -l olema IRISREF -number ja see peab algama tähtedega A, B või C. Vastasel juhul on need endiselt klassifitseeritud ja RDT2 ei saa seda teha need rullid on teile saadaval.  

Algne paberkoopia, millest film loodi, on endiselt õhuväe ajalooliste uuringute agentuuri hoiul ja see on salastatud. Neil võib olla ka üksuse ajalugu ja muid tõendavaid dokumente 485. pommigrupi jaoks. Nende dokumentide kohta lisateabe saamiseks soovitame teil võtta ühendust õhuväe ajalooliste uuringute agentuuriga, 600 Chennault Circle, Maxwelli õhujõudude baas, AL 36112-6424. Veebisait on https://www.afhra.af.mil/

Loodame, et sellest on abi. Palju õnne uurimistööks!

Re: Otsime missiooniaruandeid (eriti "laadimisloendeid") 15. õhujõudude, 485. pommigrupi, 828. pommisaatkonna jaoks. II maailmasõda

Tänan teid, Rebecca, kiire vastuse eest.

Airforcehistoryindexist olen leidnud vähe tabamusi otsides "0485"   või "0828" või Venosa Italy.   Enamasti õhusõidukite õnnetuste aruanded.   Nende dokumentide kokkuvõte on "Salastamata" -siiski IRISREF -i numbrid EI alga tähega.

Kas soovitate mul AFHRAga teist korda ühendust võtta, et saada lisateavet?   Kui jah, siis milliseid konkreetseid termineid või sõnastusi peaksin kasutama?     Kas peaksin küsima, kas otsitav teave on "KLASSIFITSEERITUD"?     Ma ei täpsustanud oma esialgses taotluses ühtegi klassifitseerimisastet.

Kas teie kogemuste põhjal on ebatavaline, et missiooniaruannete laadimisnimekirjad liigitatakse ka pärast seda paljude aastate möödumist.

Re: Otsime missiooniaruandeid (eriti "laadimisloendeid") 15. õhujõudude, 485. pommigrupi, 828. pommisaatkonna jaoks. II maailmasõda
Rebecca Collier 10.10.2018 9:35 (autor Peter Rhoades)

Täname, et postitasite oma järelpäringu Ajaloo Hubi!

Otsisime õhujõudude ajaloo indeksist, kasutades & ldquoGROUP/0485/BOMB ” ja   & ldquoSQUADRON/0828/BOMB ”. Leidsime nimekirja 14 dokumendist 485. ja 2 828. dokumendi kohta. Kui klõpsate loendis pdf -ikoonil, kuvatakse teave, mida vajate rulli taotlemiseks. Kui klõpsate ikooni kõrval esiletõstetud numbril, esitatakse sama teave erinevas vormingus. Vormi allosas vasakul on kast, mis sisaldab seda lauset -  & ldquo Ülalkirjeldatud dokumendi koopia saamiseks lisateabe saamiseks klõpsake siin ”. See viib teid teisele lehele, kus selgitatakse, mida on vaja AFHRA -lt kirjete taotlemiseks. Tehke seda ainult siis, kui te pole neid kirjeid varem kätte saanud. Kõik need on salastatud, nii et FOIA taotlust pole vaja. RDT2 vajab IRISREF -i ja Reeli numbreid.

Nagu meie varasemas vastuses öeldud, on AFHRA -l ka paberkoopiad kõigist   mikrofilmi salvestistest. Kui teie soovitud mikrofilm pole loetav, soovitame teil paberit näha. See võib nõuda, et lähete Maxwelli AFB -sse, et neid isiklikult näha. Pidage meeles, et kõik missiooniaruanded ei sisaldanud laadimisnimekirju. Sekretärist sõltus, millised dokumendid koos aruandega esitati. Lisaks on AFHRA -l muid dokumente, mis võivad teile abiks olla, näiteks ajalugu ja tõendavad dokumendid.    

Loodame, et sellest on abi. Palju õnne uurimistööks!

Re: Otsin missiooniaruandeid (eriti "laadimisloendeid") 15. õhujõudude, 485. pommigrupi, 828. pommisaatkonna jaoks. II maailmasõda

Tänan teid, Darren Cole, väga kasuliku e -kirja eest.

Kordasin teie õhuväe ajalooindeksi otsingut, kasutades kaldkriipsu "/" eraldajaid rühmade GROUP/0485/BOMB ja SQUADRON/0485/BOMB jaoks ning leidsin teie märgitud kirjed.

Nendest dokumentidest leidsin kahjuks samad mikrofilmipoolide numbrid, mille AFHRA mulle saatis.

Suure tõenäosusega päästsite mulle reisi Maxwelli AFB -sse:   Ma kahtlustan, et tollased ja üksuse ametnikud ei kirjutanud ammendavaid laadimisnimekirju, nagu te ütlesite.


485. pommigrupp (raske)

Meeste auks
485. pommigrupp (raske)
15. õhuvägi, II maailmasõda.
Aktiveeritud 1. oktoobril 1943
Gowen Field, Idaho. Koolitatud kell
Fairmont AAF, Nebraska.
Lendas B-24 lennukiga Venosast, Itaaliast
üle lõuna-, kesk- ja idaosa
Euroopa 10. mai 44–25. Aprill 45
Austatud üksuse tsitaat.
Kümme kampaaniat. Inaktiveeritud
20. august 45 Sioux City AAF, Iowa

Püstitas 1982. aastal 485. pommirühmaliit.

Teemad. See mälestusmärk on loetletud nendes teemade loendites: Õhk ja kosmos ja härjad vennaskond või Sororal Organisations & bull War, II World. Selle sissekande jaoks on märkimisväärne ajalooline kuupäev 10. mai 1945.

Asukoht. 39 ° 46,81 ′ N, 84 & 6,755 ′ W. Marker asub Wright-Pattersoni õhujõudude baasis, Ohio, Montgomery maakonnas. Marker (mälestusmärk #35) asub Ameerika Ühendriikide õhujõudude rahvusmuuseumi mälestuspargis, muuseumile pääseb Springfieldi tänavalt. Puudutage kaardi vaatamiseks. Marker asub sellel postiaadressil või selle lähedal: 1100 Spaatz Street, Dayton OH 45433, Ameerika Ühendriigid. Puudutage juhiseid.

Muud läheduses asuvad markerid. Sellest markerist jalutuskäigu kaugusel on vähemalt 8 muud markerit. Khobari tornide mälestusmärk (siin, selle tähise kõrval) 98. pommirühm (mõne sammu kaugusel sellest markerist) 483. pommitusrühm (H) (mõne sammu kaugusel sellest markerist)

10. õhuruumide rühm (mõne sammu kaugusel sellest markerist) 11. pommitusrühm (H) (mõne sammu kaugusel sellest markerist) 5. õhuvägi (mõne sammu kaugusel sellest tähistusest) 75. vägede vedajate eskaader (mõne sammu kaugusel sellest markerist). Puudutage Wright-Pattersoni lennuväebaasi kõigi markerite loendi ja kaardi vaatamiseks.

Vaata ka. . .
1. NMUSAFi mälestuspargi skeem. (Esitatud 27. detsembril 2009, William Fischer, Jr. Scrantonist, Pennsylvania.)
2. 485. pommirühmaliit. (Esitatud 27. detsembril 2009, William Fischer, Jr. Scrantonist, Pennsylvania.)


Kas soovite rohkem teada saada USAAF 485. pommigrupi kohta?

Theodore Andrew Browni 485. pommigrupp

Hiljutine Swampscotti ajaloolise seltsi antiikesemete hindamise öö oli edukas. Oli lõbus näha, kuidas ligi 100 inimest said teada oma antiikesemete ja kogumisasjade väärtusest. Tõin aastaid tagasi kingitud keraamilised Stengali linnud. Need olid 1940ndate vintage, hinnatud umbes 100 dollarile. Paljud hindamiseks toodud maalid olid vahemikus 300 kuni 400 dollarit. Kuid minu jaoks oli kõige põnevam rätiku suurune raske siidkangas, mille ühel küljel oli üksikasjalik Saksamaa ja Belgia ning teisel pool Saksamaa ja Prantsusmaa kaart. Teresa Vatcher küsis kõigilt saalisolijatelt, kas nad teavad, millest kaardid pärinevad. Kaks inimest saalis tundsid kaardid ära. Need üksikasjalikud kaardid väljastati II maailmasõja ajal vaenuliku territooriumi kohal lendavatele lennuväelastele ja lisati nende ellujäämiskomplektidesse. 35 000 sõjaväelasest, kes leidsid tee vaenlase maalt koju, kasutas üle poole neid väärtuslikke kaarte. Omanike tabamise korral saaks need väikesteks kokku voltida ja peita. Neid võidi õmmelda riietesse või peita õõnsasse kingakontsa ja nad ei pragisenenud nagu paber ega lagunenud märjana. Külmade piirkondade sõdurid kasutasid soojuseks siidikaarte, kuumades piirkondades mehed kaitsesid neid vigade eest.

Siidikaardi sisse toonud Teresa ütles, et kasutas siidikaarte rätikuna ja austas seda, sest see kuulus tema vennale, John Pagnottale, teise maailmasõja tippsündurile 8. õhujõudude B-24 pommitajal. John ütles talle, et tema relvaasendis ei ole kuumust, vannituba ega klaasipuhastit. Kui ta koju läks, ilma siidikaarti hindamiseks kaasa võtmata, peatasin ta ja ütlesin: „Kas sa ei näita hindajale isegi oma kaarti?” Ta ütles: "Kas soovite selle üles võtta?" Ütlesin entusiastlikult: "Jah." Nii jättis ta kaardi minu juurde ja uksest välja minnes ütles ta: "Anna see mu õele koju tuua." Ütlesin, et tagastan selle kindlasti pärast hindamist Catherine Valerianile. Kirjutasin lühikese katkendi John Pagnottale kuulunud siidikaardist paberijupile ja panin selle koos siidikaardiga, et anda hindajale vihje. (John Pagnotta oli 453. pommigrupis ja filminäitleja Jimmy Stewart oli tema juhtiv ohvitser.) Hindaja oli huvitatud. Ta ei olnud siidikaarti varem oma paljude aastate jooksul selles valdkonnas näinud. Ta ei osanud sellele väärtust panna, sest tal polnud aimugi, kui palju neid tehti, kuid ta teadis selle sentimentaalset väärtust Pagnotta perekonnale. Huvitav, läksin järgmisel päeval võrku ja kirjutasin otsingureale "siidikaardid WWII". Sain tagasi siidikaartide ajaloo. Ma printisin selle välja ja helistasin Terryle ja lugesin talle ette. Ütlesin talle, et tal on 300 dollari suurune rätik seljas. Lugesin vanadest siidikaartidest, mis müüdi eBays hinnaga 300 dollarit+. Terry ütles, et tegin talle päeva. Võib -olla annab ta selle kunagi muuseumile.

Siis helistasin oma kunagisele naabrile Mary Brownile, sest tema abikaasa Ted Brown oli B-24 pihtlaskur ja tegi Saksamaa kohal pommirünnakuid. Tahtsin temalt küsida, kas tal on siidikaarti. Mary ütles: "Ta pole kunagi siidikaarti maininud, kuid tal oli pöidlaküünte suurune kompass." Ta hakkas mulle jutustama tema viimast lendu Saksamaa kohal. Küsisin, kas saaksin selle tema lastele kirja panna. Ta nõustus ja järgnev on lugu, mille ta mulle rääkis:

The bomber was a B-24 and Col. “Hap” Arnold was the first commander of the 485th Bomb Group, stationed in Venosa, Italy. Their mission was to bomb the synthetic oil plants in eastern Germany. After a certain number of missions, the exhausted plane crews were given rest and recreation time. The men were sent to the Isle of Capri for a rest before the next group of bombing missions.

The lead bomber of a hundred B-24s, where Staff Sgt. Ted Brown was a waist gunner, was on the way home, August 1944, from a bombing run to the Ploesti Oil Fields. They were about 100 miles from Berlin. They were under heavy ack-ack fire and the plane was hit. It was on fire and the crew had to bail out. Ted Brown said the crew never had any training in parachute jumping, or even any last-minute instruction. Over enemy territory, with the bomber on fire, they had to get out of the plane fast. The man directly in front of Ted got to the escape door and froze. He could not move. He could not force himself to jump out into the unknown through the ack-ack fire.

Ted quickly booted the terrified man out the door and Ted jumped out right behind him. (Later, the man thanked Ted for booting him out the door, saving his life.) The whole crew parachuted down into Germany. On his way down, Ted was wounded in his elbow by the ack-ack fire and his groin was cut by a twisted strap on his parachute when he landed in a tree. Ted cut himself free and fell to the ground. He was all alone, no other parachutist in sight.

He ran away from his parachute as fast as he could, and hid, for the Germans would soon find the parachute. He buried his pistol, knowing he’d be shot if he was found with a gun. He hid for five days, travelling by night, hiding by day, eating the watercress, Brussels sprouts, and Swiss chard he found growing in the fields. He recognized the plants as edible because he’d grown up on a farm in Vermont. He used the tiny compass in his survival kit, hoping to find friendly forces, and he hid and slept during the day.

One day he was hiding in a cornfield, and woke to find a group of Polish men, a forced work crew, coming through the field. The men saw the airman on the ground, but never let their German guards know he was there. As they walked past him some men dropped bread for him without looking down so the Germans never knew an American airman was hiding in the cornfield.

The fifth day he was asleep in a field and woke up to find a German policeman with his spike- topped helmet, holding a gun on him. He was brought to a nearby farmhouse, and taken to the cellar where a German officer, who spoke excellent English, interrogated him. When Ted gave only his name, rank and serial number, as required by the Geneva Convention, and would say no more, the German officer smashed him across the face with his rifle butt. Eventually the entire crew of the bomber was captured and imprisoned.

Mary Brown, back at home, received news Ted was missing in action. She did not know for three months if her husband was dead or alive. She only knew his plane was shot down on the way home from a bombing raid. Mary was working at Cushman’s Bakery in Lynn and her co-workers were amazed at her belief that Ted was alive. She felt she’d know if he’d been killed.

Lt. Cummings, who’d trained with Ted, wrote a letter to Mary. As an officer, Cummings censored his own letters and he was able to tell her, “Mary, I haven’t seen Ted for a while, but I know he is all right.” She was grateful to hear the news. Ted was alive! This was before the Air Force informed her he was in a prisoner of war camp. Ted spent 10 months as a prisoner of war in Germany. Once Mary knew he was alive, and in a POW camp in Germany, she sent him many letters and packages of food. POW mail went through neutral Switzerland. He only received one of her letters and none of the food packages.

Living conditions were harsh in the POW camp, with little food. In cold weather, the men slept head to toe, side by side, and kept their feet warm under each other’s arms. One of the prison camp guard dogs slept at night right under their compound. The men, desperate for food, got a floorboard loose, killed and ate the dog.

One day Mary Brown was invited to Boston and with a troop of soldiers standing at attention, she was presented with Ted Brown’s medals. Ted had been awarded the Purple Heart and the Distinguished Flying Cross, with oak leaf clusters. The medals he’d been awarded were pinned on Mary.

As the Allied forces pushed into Germany, the English from one side, the Americans from another and the Russians from a third side, the thousands of men in POW camps were moved from camp to camp, away from the advancing armies. Ted was forced into a boxcar with so many others there was only standing room and no latrine. Ted remembered the stench in the boxcar was awful. The men standing in these boxcars moving from camp to camp would be shunted to a siding for frightening hours when the Allies were bombing. As they travelled through little towns they were warned to make no sound lest they be shot. At that time there were roving bands of the retreating German army and SS troops.

On one move from a POW camp, the men went on a forced march of 100 miles, in the winter, which took 12 days, and if you didn’t keep up, you’d be shot. Their German guards were older men who didn’t really want to shoot anyone. The prisoners would get on each side of a faltering comrade and almost carry him along. They helped each other. They travelled on back roads to avoid the retreating German soldiers and SS troopers.

Ted Brown ended up in Stalag Luft III located in Sagan, near the Baltic Sea, about 100 miles southeast of Berlin. Stalag Luft III was run by the German Air Force. One day in April 1945, the prisoners woke to find all the German guards were gone. Later that day, the Russians liberated the POW camp. Ted commented, “The Russians were a wild bunch.” During the war the Germans had raped Russian women and the Russians couldn’t wait to catch and kill as many Germans as possible.

When the Russians saw the emaciated condition of the men in the prison camp, they went out into the countryside and rounded up livestock. They put on a giant barbecue for the prisoners. The Russians even supplied vodka for the celebration, which they insisted everyone should drink. With his shrunken stomach, Ted could not eat much and he only put his lips to the vodka bottle, not daring to drink a drop. The men who ate and drank too much were soon very sick.

The former prisoners of war were flown out of Germany in B-17s to France, where they lived in tents and were put on a liquid diet for several weeks before they were able to tolerate solid food. The men were told they might never be able to have children as they had been so starved. Mary said, "Our three children are proof of how wrong the doctors were about that." The men waited their turn to get on a Liberty ship and head home.

Ted arrived back in New York in late May 1945. He called Mary and said he wanted to see her alone for a couple of days, then after a couple days, he’d be ready to visit with the rest of his family. So Mary rented a room at the Hawthorne Hotel in Salem for two days and told no one (except his brother Fred) where they were staying. When Ted arrived, Mary hardly recognized him, he was so thin. Mary told Ted to sit down, as she had a surprise for him. She told him about her going to Boston and being awarded his medals. She gave him his medals. He was flabbergasted for Ted was a modest man. He didn’t think what he’d done was so special. But it certainly was. The second day at the Hawthorne Hotel, Ted’s brother Fred, with whom he was very close, couldn’t wait any longer, and he came to Salem to see Ted. Ted was finally home.

Betty Dean Holmes typed up this story “from Mary Brown’s wonderful memory.” Copyright 2007 The Swampscott Reporter. Some rights reserved. Mary and Ted Brown were my neighbors for many years.


Original U.S. WWII B-24 Liberator Tail Heavy 831st Bomb Squadron Named Pilot Grouping - DFC

Original Items: One-of-a-kind grouping. First Lieutenant Robert R. Baker ASN 16086294 was a pilot on the B-24 Liberator TAIL HEAVY and flew 33 successful missions. He was assigned to the 831st Bomb Squadron, 485TH Bomb Group, 15th Air Force. According to the Army Air Corps Library and Museum he received the Air Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster on February 26th, 1945 and again on April 20th, 1945. He also was a recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross.

In a 485th Bomb group reunion newspaper from 1990 Baker and Tail Heavy are a featured article. It reds as follows:

"Tail Heavy" Ends 100 Missions. One of the few B-24 assigned to the 485th Bomb Group to complete 100 missions was one, dubbed "Tail Heavy." It was assigned to the 831st squadron and was one of the original aircraft assigned to the 485th. Thanks to Pilot Robert R. Baker, now of Hickory Corners, Mich., photos of the plane and its crew as it completed its 100 mission are available. The above photo shows the crew after it had completed the plane's 100th mission. The exact date of the mission has not been determined. In the middle left is the pilot, Robert Baker. In the middle right is the co-pilot, Jim Schieb. Other members of the crew were Hazen O. Suttkus , navigator Richard McLawhorn, bombardier Bryan Nauman, engineer Bill Argie, ball gunner Mill Miller, radio operator Fred Hosier, upper gunner John Manfriedo, nose gunner, and Wayne Whiting, tail gunner. The photo of Tail Heavy dropping bombs was sent to Pilot Baker by Bob Placica, who was on the crew assigned to Tail Heavy in the States and who flew it to Italy. During the year 1989 Bob Baker visited all of his living crew members in their homes. Dick McLawhorn is the only one not living. He discovered that Lewis Baker was his co-pilot on his first mission, but that Jim Scheib was his regular co- pilot after the initial mission.

The 831st Bomb Squadron was deployed to Southern Italy in April 1944 on 20 April 1944 154 members of the Squadron were lost when the Liberty ship SS Paul Hamilton was sunk by an aerial torpedo. Entered combat in May 1944, being assigned to Fifteenth Air Force. Engaged in very long range strategic bombing missions to enemy military, industrial and transportation targets in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania, and Yugoslavia, bombing marshalling yards, oil refineries, airdrome installations, heavy industry, and other strategic objectives. Also carried out some support and interdiction operations. Struck bridges, harbors, and troop contingents in August 1944 to aid the invasion of Southern France. Hit communications lines and other targets during March and April 1945 to support the advance of British Eighth Army in northern Italy.

Included in this wonderful set are the following items:

- Named officers gabardine wool 4-pocket class A uniform with all original insignia and ribbons. Features Italian made bullion pilot wings, rare Italian made bullion 15th AF patch, and Italian made bullion Lieutenant bars. His uniform is tailor made with his name R R BAKER typed on label inside pocket. Medal ribbons that include: Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal with two Oak Leaf Clusters, European-African-Middle East Campaign with 2 battle stars and Presidential Distinguished Unit Citation.

- Officers khaki wool 4-pocket uniform coat with bullion AAF patch.
- Officers “pink” long-sleeve shirt.
- Officers dark gabardine overseas cap with Lt. bar.
- Khaki cotton tie.
- Photo of his crew with crew members named on back.
- Photo of his plane on bomb mission and marked on back by Lt. Baker.
- Photo of his crew in Italy with his notes on back.

History of the 485th Bomb Group:

The wing was originally constituted as the 485th Bombardment Group (Heavy) and activated on 20 September 1943.[6] Its original squadrons were the newly activated 828th, 829th, and 830th Bombardment Squadrons, which were joined a few days later by the 831st Bombardment Squadron at Gowen Field, Idaho. The 831st was an experienced Consolidated B-24 Liberator squadron that had been performing anti-submarine warfare missions as the 11th Antisubmarine Squadron. The group deployed to Gowen, where it derived its initial cadre from the 29th Bombardment Group and was assigned to Second Air Force for training with B-24s at Gowen and at Fairmont Army Air Field, Nebraska. The group deployed to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) in March and April 1944.

Although the ground echelon had deployed to Southern Italy by April 1944, the air echelon was detained in Tunisia for further training. The group entered combat with Fifteenth Air Force in May 1944. The 485th engaged in very long range strategic bombing missions to enemy military, industrial and transportation targets in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Romania, and Yugoslavia, bombing marshalling yards, oil refineries, airfields, heavy industry, and other strategic objectives.

The group received a Distinguished Unit Citation for combating intense fighter opposition and attacking an oil refinery at Vienna on 26 June 1944. The 485th also carried out some support and interdiction operations. It struck bridges, harbors, and troop contingents in August 1944 to aid Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France, It hit lines of communications and other targets during March and April 1945 to support the advance of British Eighth Army in northern Italy.[6] It flew its 187th and last combat mission against Linz, Austria before preparing to return to the United States and re-equip.

The 485th returned to the United States in May 1945 and was programmed for deployment to the Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) as a Boeing B-29 Superfortress very heavy bombardment group.[citation needed] Many combat veterans of MTO demobilized upon arrival in the United States, and a small cadre of personnel reformed at Sioux Falls Army Airfield, South Dakota at the end of May.[citation needed] The group was reassigned to Second Air Force for training in Iowa. Because B-29 groups had only three combat squadrons, the 831st Bombardment Squadron was inactivated in August. The group then moved on paper[10] to Smoky Hill Army Air Field, Kansas in September.

The group remained on active duty after the Japanese surrender. In March 1946 Continental Air Forces became Strategic Air Command and Second Air Force was replaced by Fifteenth Air Force as the group's intermediate headquarters. Simultaneously, the 506th Bombardment Squadron was assigned to the group from the 44th Bombardment Group. In August 1946 the personnel and equipment of the 485th were reassigned to the 97th Bombardment Group and the 485th was inactivated.


485th Bombardment Group - History

485th Bomb Group in the 15th Air Force in Italy

The 464th Bomb Group also flew B-24 Liberators with the 55th Wing of the 15th Army Air Force. We in the 485th Bomb Group flew the same missions as did they, enjoyed the same results, suffered similar losses. Their site presented by Webmaster Wendy Butler, is an excellent site that will add much to your understanding of that big event, WWII. You can move directly from my site to either 464th or 485th., and back.

What do you know about the U.S. during WWII?

1. In 1939 most americans lived in . A] Cities. B] Small towns and Farms . C] along the East Coast.

2. In 1939 how many farms had electricity? . A] 51% . B] 74% . C] 11%

3. In 1940 the National Unemployment rate was . A] 5% . B] 15% . C] 25%

4. Hitler started WWII by attacking . A] England . B] France .. C] Poland

5. WWII began on . A] 9/30/39 . B] 12/7/41 . C] 6/6/44

6. In 1942 the minimum age of the military draft was . A] 20 . B] 19 . C] 18

7. WWII ended on . A] December 1941 . B] May 1945 . C] August 1945

Our Escort
I never knew how our fighter escort was assigned, but usually we were joined by a bunch of P-51s somewhere near the head of the Adriatic. That was welcome, because mission briefing almost always mentioned a Luftwaffe base near Trieste. These fighters were based somewhere further north in Italy, above the spur, so we saw them only in the air. We knew nothing about them, except that we felt reassured when they were at hand. Knowing that for some five minutes over the target approach we must fly straight and level while the bombsight did its thing, just the thought of enemy fighters is pretty nasty.

We didn&rsquot know these were some of the Tuskegee Airmen , black men striving to prove their ability as a race. Heck we had never heard about this whole experiment, but we would not have cared who or what they were, as long as they were ours, and they were there with us at a time of trial.

There were other Groups of P-51s, but we only saw them at a distance. These guys had brightly painted red empennage[tail], and they flew with us. One brave fellow one day actually flew right through a barrage, passing us about 40 feet beyond our wingtips, doing slow rolls as he went by. It was an awful barrage, too. I remember thinking &ldquoIf he can do that, I guess I can also sit here and take it&rdquo. Somebody said &ldquoIt only hurts for a little while&rdquo.
However, the knowledge that we must only endure FLAK, that there would be no Messerschmidts or Folke-Wolfs to bother us, endeared these escort pilots to us.
In these later years, I have met a few of them, and see one often. . .

FLAK is an acronym for some German words I cannot remember, and never could say properly. But 88mm FLAK is ugly stuff. During the winter and spring of 1944-5, we in the 15th Air Force were flying north from Southern Italy to targets in northern Italy, Austria, Germany, and Hungary. On the ground, the defense forces were firing the 88mm cannon that was so versatile, so effective, and so nasty. It shoots projectile a bit less than 31/2 inches in diameter. It is made of steel, and loaded full of high explosive. The inside surface of this container was deeply scored so that it would break up into small fragments, which became tiny projectiles themselves. Each burst flung hundreds of these little devils in all directions. Flying through a barrage, we could hear a veritable hailstorm of fragments falling on us from above. They were they were the result of near misses. The shells had flown right on past us before bursting. The nearest miss I experienced burst just 3 feet below our left aileron, and it put nearly 300 holes in our plane, from nose to tail. This was the notorious &ldquoHarms Way&rdquo into which so many of us flew regularly.
( As Patton and Bradley pushed forward, the German perimeter became smaller and smaller. But they just pulled their FLAK batteries back too. They in turn became closer to gether, batteries grew exponentially. Years later I learned some of those damn things could fire 6 or 8 rounds a minute. Had we been able to pave over that stuff we might have hauled those bombs in trucks.)
The hull of the airplane was aluminum sheet metal thin, easily pierced, easily patched. The two pilots were sitting on ¼ inch armor plate. More armor plate ran up one side, arched overhead, and back down the other side. Another sheet covered the back. We were sitting in a shallow cave, protected except from the front. Oh well, nothing&rsquos perfect. I guess they figured that unless the pilots survived, the whole plane would be lost. Of course, all ten aboard were issued FLAK vests. They were in two parts a front and a back. Quick-release snaps fastened the two together on the shoulders. They were made of either heavy denim, or light canvas. Pieces of armor plate, some 2&rdquo x 2&rdquo, were sewn into pockets as close together as possible. When fragments struck the vest, they tore the denim, which could be patched and re-sewn. It was not lost on the occupant how much tougher the vest was than his own skin. They were heavy to wear, but had a good reputation. The two waist gunners, aka engineer and radioman, went through the barrage standing at a swivel gun mounted in the open window. Ribald jokes about the danger to their un- protected &ldquonether parts&rdquo were standard. Truly, it was scary stuff.
But I had a special problem. My short legs barely reached the rudder pedals. I really needed a cushion behind me. There was not always a cushion at hand. Large pilots had a disinterest in cushions. They were thrown aside, and sometimes disappeared. One long flight with me so handicapped convinced my first Pilot that something must be done. At the supply room they solved the problem, or at least replaced it with another. They issued me a backpack parachute, which also served as a very thick cushion. It was mine to wear, and to keep, store between missions, and bring to the plane. But it was about twice the thickness of the cushions. The result was I was crowded out of my cave. Now there were ribald jokes about the danger to my &ldquoforward parts&rdquo. Nothing, as I said, is perfect. But it all seems to have been good enough, because here I am, totally unscathed. [I never heard anyone described as &ldquoscathed&rdquo]
Flying that pig of an aircraft in formation with 27 others was fatiguing. We relieved one another every 15 minutes, but after six hours each of us was pretty much done in. But for me the worst part was the bomb run about 5 minutes long. The run began as we reached the I P, the initial point. Once our leader found the IP, he knew the course to take to the target. For that distance, about 20 miles, we all had to fly straight and level so the bombsight could work its magic. The lead ship was being controlled by that bombsight our job was to fly as close together as we could. Rather, that was skipper&rsquos job. Mine was to watch the lead ship carefully. When I saw his bombs dropping, I had a button to push, releasing our load. As we left the IP another Group was over the target, still another was about halfway there. Staring ahead as I was, I couldn&rsquot miss seeing what those gunners were doing to those poor guys in the barrage. And again, as the next Group reached the target, it only confirmed what I&rsquod seen before. In five minutes, that&rsquos where we will be. Oh Boy! Of course, throughout those 5 minutes, I kept my feet on the rudder pedals, and one hand on the wheel, just in case Skipper caught one.
The moment our bombs were clear, the lead plane began &ldquoevasive action&rdquo. A tight bank right or left, then back the other way, wheeling around to make us all into a more elusive target. Although I never saw a German fighter pointed at us, and we had a wonderfully faithful escort, there was still a chance of fighter attack, so tight formation was worth the effort. One day, when we were in the number 5 position, a shell burst just close enough below our left wing to roll the plane more tightly to the right. Unfortunately, the number 6 plane, opposite us caught one under his right wing. Glen climbed, Max dove, and we missed each other by mere feet. Finally, we left the target area and headed home.

Best Duty of WWII

I have written of my most unpleasant occasions of the War. But in May of '45 I had a great time on a great duty. Flying with the 485th, we returned on April 25th to find that our Group had flown its last mission. For the 15th AAF the strategic air war in Europe was over. Those of us with 15 missions or more were invited to volunteer to join a cadre to return to the States and train as lead crews in a Group of B-29s'
I had learned not to volunteer for anything, so I was among a number who were sent to the 465th Bomb Group, 780th Squadron at Cerignola. Our status there was "attached-unassigned". We had no duties. Soon we were thoroughly bored. You can only play so much cribbage and checkers.
A day or so later, as I walked past the Officer's Club the Squadron C O came out. I was the first person he saw, and he called me to him. He said "Wilder. I have a job for you." It seems they were planning a V E Day Party. They had booze coming in, a Master Sergeant, with ulcers, who was a teetotaler, to run the bar, but no ice ! He appointed me Ice Officer of the 780th Squadron. He assigned to me two Sergeants and a 6x6 truck. He made out passes for all three of us, good anywhere in Southern Italy (south of Rome), and access to any motor pool fuel dump.
Everyone could see that the War was ending. It was planned that when the announcement came, a General would come up from Wing, make a speech for posterity, and throw open the camp for the Party. The Major said, "do what you want, but when he's finished, I want ice in the Club".
None of us had any notion that there was any ice in all of Italy. But you don't argue with a Major at a time like that. We had no road maps or yellow pages. We had no connections, no network. We just started cruising. Next day, a miracle. 5 miles from camp there was an engineering detachment that had been maintaining the roads. They had a really big U S Navy ice machine. The kind that are found on carrier and cruisers. They had never used it. Had never had a customer. I explained it all to the Lieutenant in command. All he said was "I want to come to the party". Nobody had given me a job description for my duties, so I just assumed I had the authority to invite my source.
Now we had a truck, fuel, and passes, and our mission was assured. So we went swimming in the Adriatic at Barletta. We drove over to Naples, and down to Taranto. Being generous souls, we picked up GIs and Officers who needed transportation. Being generous souls, with very little persuasion, they shared with us such things as real Scotch whiskey, wine and other goodies. We had a grand time for over a week. And it was all legal.
However we could see from the Intelligence bulletins that the big day was at hand, so we reduced our radius of exploration. We were on hand when the General came by. After his speech, we took off for the ice. They were waiting for us. We backed our truck up to the machine, and they loaded 3 layers of 50# blocks of ice, over which they poured crushed ice to fill the truck.
Arrived at the O club, I reported to the Major and asked where he wanted the ice. I guess he expected me to deliver a 10# bag, or something, because he told me to &ldquo just put it back of the bar&rdquo. When I told him it wouldn't fit there, he came out to see what we had. He expressed his approval in colorful language, and then told the driver to go down to the E M Club, unload half, and bring the rest back
"Wilder, come with me. Give me your ration card" At the bar he called the Sgt over and tore up my ration card. I was wondering what you had to do to please this guy when he said, "Give the Lt. a drink whenever he asks.&rdquo Well now! Nothing wrong with that!
The party went on for a couple of days. The word got around that I had supplied the ice. My list of friends soared. Then some idiot mentioned that I had the key to the bar, and things got really crowded.
At last most had worn out, passed out, or whatever. But I had a Major making up to me because I could still order drinks. I don't know what he did when I caved in. But it was fun, and the shooting had stopped. And nobody asked me for my ration card again.
Now, Turn back to the opening paragraph of this story. We were asked to volunteer for duty in B-29s. The offer was baited with a visit to our homes for 30 days, before reassignment to more combat. Suspicious, and following my own principles, I declined. The result was that I frittered my time away in sunny Southern Italy and did not get home until the others had returned to duty. But by that time events in the Pacific War had made the need for more Pilots go away. I went home to stay in June. Some of them had to wait several more months.