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Martin Luther ja 95 teesi - kokkuvõte, päritolu ja video

Martin Luther ja 95 teesi - kokkuvõte, päritolu ja video

1483. aastal Saksamaal Eislebenis sündinud Martin Lutherist sai Lääne ajaloo üks olulisemaid tegelasi. Luther veetis oma algusaastad suhteliselt anonüümsena munga ja õpetlasena. Kuid aastal 1517 kirjutas Luther dokumendi, mis ründas katoliku kiriku korrumpeerunud tava müüa pattude vabastamiseks „järeleandmisi”. Tema „95 teesi”, mis toetasid kahte keskset veendumust - et Piibel on keskne religioosne autoriteet ja et inimesed võivad pääseda päästmisele ainult oma usu, mitte tegude kaudu - pidi esile kutsuma protestantliku reformatsiooni. Kuigi need ideed olid juba varem välja arenenud, kodifitseeris Martin Luther need ajaloohetkel, mis oli küps usundite reformimiseks. Katoliku kirik oli kunagi lõhestunud ja peagi tekkinud protestantismi kujundasid Lutheri ideed. Tema kirjutised muutsid religiooni- ja kultuuriloo kulgu Läänes.

Varajane elu

Martin Luther (1483–1546) sündis Eislebenis, Saksimaal (praegu Saksamaa), mis kuulub Püha Rooma keisririigi koosseisu, vanematele Hansule ja Margarettale. Lutheri isa oli jõukas ärimees ja kui Luther oli noor, kolis isa 10 -liikmelise pere Mansfeldi. Viieaastaselt alustas Luther haridusteed kohalikus koolis, kus õppis lugemist, kirjutamist ja ladina keelt. 13 -aastaselt hakkas Luther käima koolis, mida pidasid Magdeburgi ühise elu vennad. Vendade õpetused keskendusid isiklikule vagadusele ja seal tekkis Lutheril varakult huvi kloostrielu vastu.

Martin Luther siseneb kloostrisse

Kuid Hans Lutheril oli noore Martini suhtes muid plaane - ta tahtis, et temast saaks jurist -, nii et ta tõmbas ta Magdeburgi koolist tagasi ja saatis ta Eisenachi uude kooli. Seejärel astus Luther 1501. aastal Erfurti ülikooli, mis oli tolleaegne esietendusülikool Saksamaal. Seal õppis ta tolleaegset tüüpilist õppekava: aritmeetikat, astronoomiat, geomeetriat ja filosoofiat ning omandas koolist magistrikraadi aastal 1505. Sama aasta juulis sattus Luther ägedasse äikesetormi, milles välk lõi ta peaaegu maha. Ta pidas juhtunut Jumala märgiks ja lubas, et saab tormi üle elades mungaks. Torm vaibus, Luther tõusis vigastusteta välja ja oma lubadusele truult pööras Luther selja taga õigusõpetusele päevi hiljem, 17. juulil 1505. Selle asemel astus ta augustinlaste kloostrisse.

Luther hakkas elama spartalikku ja ranget mungaelu, kuid ei jätnud õpinguid pooleli. Aastatel 1507–1510 õppis Luther Erfurti ülikoolis ja Wittenbergi ülikoolis. Aastatel 1510–1511 tegi ta haridustee pausi, et olla Saksa Augustinususe kloostrite esindaja Roomas. Aastal 1512 sai Luther doktorikraadi ja temast sai piibliuurimise professor. Järgmise viie aasta jooksul viiksid Lutheri jätkuvad teoloogilised õpingud teda arusaamadeni, millel oleks mõju kristlikule mõttele sajandite jooksul.

Martin Luther küsitleb katoliku kirikut

Sajandi alguses hakkasid mõned teoloogid ja teadlased kahtlema roomakatoliku kiriku õpetuses. Umbes sel ajal muutusid laiemalt kättesaadavaks ka originaaltekstide tõlked - nimelt piibel ja varase kirikufilosoofi Augustinuse kirjutised.

Augustinus (340–430) oli rõhutanud Piibli ülimuslikkust, mitte kiriku ametnikke kui ülimat religioosset autoriteeti. Ta uskus ka, et inimesed ei saa päästa päästmist oma tegudega, kuid ainult Jumal võib anda pääste oma jumaliku armu läbi. Keskajal õpetas katoliku kirik, et päästmine on võimalik „heade tegude” või õigete tegude kaudu, mis meeldivad Jumalale. Luther hakkas jagama Augustinuse kahte keskset veendumust, mis hiljem moodustasid protestantismi aluse.

Vahepeal muutus katoliku kiriku tava andestada „pattudele andestust”, et patustele andeks anda. Indulgentside müümine oli Saksamaal keelatud, kuid tava jätkus lakkamatult. Aastal 1517 hakkas üks vennaskond nimega Johann Tetzel Saksamaal indulgente müüma, et koguda raha Rooma Püha Peetruse basiilika renoveerimiseks.

95 teesi

Olles pühendunud ideele, et pääste võib saavutada usu ja ainult jumaliku armu läbi, vaidles Luther jõuliselt vastu indulgentside müümise korrumpeerunud tavale. Sellest veendumusest lähtuvalt kirjutas ta arutelude küsimuste ja ettepanekute loendi „Vaidlused indulgentside võimu ja tõhususe üle”, mida tuntakse ka kui „95 teesi”. Populaarne legend räägib, et 31. oktoobril 1517 naelutas Luther trotslikult oma 95 teesi koopia Wittenbergi lossi kiriku uksele. Tegelikkus polnud ilmselt nii dramaatiline; Tõenäoliselt riputas Luther dokumendi faktiliselt kiriku ukse taha, et kuulutada järgnevat akadeemilist arutelu selle ümber, mida ta korraldas.

95 teesi, millest sai hiljem protestantliku reformatsiooni alus, kirjutati märkimisväärselt alandlikus ja akadeemilises toonis, pigem küsitledes kui süüdistades. Dokumendi üldine mõte oli siiski üsna provokatiivne. Esimesed kaks teesi sisaldasid Lutheri keskset mõtet, et Jumal kavatses usklikud otsida meeleparandust ja et usk, mitte teod, tooks pääste. Ülejäänud 93 teesi, millest paljud kritiseerisid otseselt indulgentside praktikat, toetasid neid kahte esimest.

Lisaks indulgentside kriitikale peegeldas Luther ka rahva arvamust „St. Peetri skandaal ”95 teesis:

Miks ei ehita paavst, kelle rikkus on tänapäeval suurem kui rikkaima Crassuse rikkus, Püha Peetruse basiilikat oma, mitte vaeste usklike rahaga?

95 teesi levitati kiiresti kogu Saksamaal ja seejärel suunduti Rooma. Aastal 1518 kutsuti Luther Lõuna -Saksamaa linna Augsburgi, et kaitsta oma arvamusi enne keiserlikku dieeti (assamblee). Kolm päeva kestnud arutelu Lutheri ja kardinal Thomas Cajetani vahel ei andnud kokkulepet. Cajetan kaitses kiriku indulgentside kasutamist, kuid Luther keeldus loobumast ja naasis Wittenbergi.

Luther ketser

9. novembril 1518 mõistis paavst Lutheri kirjad hukka, kuna need on vastuolus kiriku õpetustega. Aasta hiljem kutsuti kokku mitmeid komisjone, et uurida Lutheri õpetusi. Esimene paavstlik komisjon leidis, et need on ketserlikud, kuid teine ​​väitis vaid, et Lutheri kirjutised olid „skandaalsed ja vaenulikele kõrvadele solvavad”. Lõpuks avaldas paavst Leo X juulis 1520 paavstliku pulli (avaliku dekreedi), milles jõuti järeldusele, et Lutheri ettepanekud on ketserlikud, ja andis Lutherile 120 päeva Roomas taganemiseks. Luther keeldus loobumast ja 3. jaanuaril 1521 paavst Leo ekskommunitseeris Martin Lutheri katoliku kirikust.

17. aprillil 1521 astus Luther Saksamaal usside dieedi ette. Keeldudes taas loobumast, lõpetas Luther oma tunnistuse trotsliku avaldusega: „Siin ma seisan. Jumal aita mind. Ma ei oska muud teha. ” 25. mail allkirjastas Püha Rooma keiser Karl V Lutheri vastu ettekirjutuse, millega käskis tema kirjutised põletada. Luther varjas end järgmiseks aastaks Eisenachi linnas, kus alustas tööd ühe oma suure eluprojektiga - Uue Testamendi tõlkimisega saksa keelde, mille valmimine võttis tal aega 10 aastat.

Martin Lutheri hilisemad aastad

Luther naasis 1521. aastal Wittenbergi, kus tema kirjutiste algatatud reformiliikumine oli temast kaugemale kasvanud. See polnud enam puhtteoloogiline põhjus; see oli muutunud poliitiliseks. Teised juhid asusid reformi juhtima ja samal ajal hakkas talupoegade sõjana tuntud mäss levima üle Saksamaa.

Luther oli varem kirjutanud kiriku vaimuliku tsölibaadi järgimise vastu ja 1525 abiellus ta endise nunna Bora Katariinaga. Neil oli viis last. Kuigi Lutheri varased kirjutised olid vallandanud reformatsiooni, oli ta oma hilisematel aastatel sellega vaevalt seotud. Elu lõpus muutus Luther oma seisukohtades karmiks ja kuulutas paavsti Antikristuseks, pooldas juutide väljasaatmist impeeriumist ja tunnistas patriarhide praktikale tuginedes polügaamiat Vanas Testamendis.

Luther suri 18. veebruaril 1546.

Martin Lutheri töö tähendus

Martin Luther on Lääne ajaloo üks mõjukamaid tegelasi. Tema kirjutised vastutasid katoliku kiriku fraktsioneerimise ja protestantliku reformatsiooni käivitamise eest. Tema kesksed õpetused, et Piibel on religioosse autoriteedi keskne allikas ja päästmine saavutatakse usu, mitte tegude kaudu, kujundasid protestantismi tuuma. Kuigi Luther oli katoliku kiriku suhtes kriitiline, distantseerus ta radikaalsetest järeltulijatest, kes tema mantli üles võtsid. Lutherit mäletatakse vastuolulise isikuna mitte ainult sellepärast, et tema kirjutised viisid olulise usureformi ja lõhenemiseni, vaid ka seetõttu, et ta võttis hilisemas elus radikaalseid seisukohti muudes küsimustes, sealhulgas oma avaldustes juutide vastu, mis mõnede sõnul võisid tähendada saksa keelt. antisemitism; teised lükkavad need lihtsalt ühe mehe vitriooliks, mis ei saanud järgijaid. Mõned Lutheri olulisemad panused teoloogilisse ajalukku, aga näiteks tema nõudmine, et Piibel oleks ainsa usuvõimu allikana tõlgitud ja kõigile kättesaadav, olid tema ajal tõeliselt revolutsioonilised.


Üheksakümmend viis teesi järeleandmiste jõust kirjutas Martin Luther 1517. aastal ja neid peetakse laialdaselt protestantliku reformatsiooni esmaseks vahendiks. Dr Martin Luther kasutas seda teesi, et näidata oma rahulolematust Kiriku indulgentside müügiga, ja see sünnitas lõpuks protestantismi. See trotsis eriti kiriku õpetusi patukahetsuse olemusest, paavsti autoriteedist ja võimust ning indulgentside tõhususest. Need tekitasid teoloogilise vaidluse, mille tulemuseks oli reformatsioon ning kristluse sees luterlike, reformitud ja anabaptistlike traditsioonide sünd.
Martin Luther ei kavatsenud lõputööd reformiprogrammiks, rünnakuks paavsti vastu jne. Ta seadis lihtsalt järeleandmistesse kahtluse alla.

95 väitekirja eesmärk oli kutsuda kohalikke teadlasi diskussioonile indulgentside üle. Ta käsitles palju kiriku hierarhia küsimusi.
Järgmine punkti kokkuvõte näitab Martin Lutheri 95 teesi eesmärki:

  • Peamiselt ei keskendunud enam Jumal, vaid mehed, kellest mõned ei oleks tohtinud olla sellistel ametikohtadel, kus nad olid.
  • Teine põhirõhk oli see, et inimesed arvasid, et neil ei ole otsest sidet Jumalaga, vaid on olemas keskmised mehed, kelle poole nad peavad Jumala juurde jõudmiseks lähenema.
  • Paavstid ei pööranud kirikus piisavalt tähelepanu neile, kes kannatasid ja olid vaesed.

Martin Lutheri 95 teesi analüüs

Ajalugu salvestab Martin Lutheri kui kristluse päästja. Ta oli mures katoliku kiriku heaolu ja selle poliitika pärast andestada andestuse, mitte meeleparanduse kaudu. Lutheri tegevus ei olnud kinematograafiline ega murranguline. Teesi 95 sõnum andis kokkuvõtte ja väljendas paljude tema eakaaslaste tundeid Kristuse õpetuste rikkumise kohta.
Luther illustreeris vaimsete, materiaalsete ja psühholoogiliste tõdede väärkohtlemise taga indulgentside ostmise ja müümise praktikas. Ta ei tahtnud võidelda ega omal moel oma eesmärki tõe kaitsmiseks Kristuse asja pärast.

95 Lõputöö

Martin Luther (1483-1546) on ajaloos üks neist ainulaadsetest jõududest, indiviid, kes tahtejõu ja oma ideede tõttu muutis maailma põhjalikult. See tõi kaasa järgmised reformid.

  1. See soodustas protestantlikku reformatsiooni.
  2. See tõi kaasa palju muutusi religioonis ja eluviisis.
  3. Tekkisid uued religioonid.
Martin Lutheri 95 teesi kokkuvõte

Revolutsioonilises Martin Lutheri 95 teesis tõstis ta esile palju punkte. Tema väitekirja kohta saame teha järgmise kokkuvõtte.


Martin Luther ja reformatsiooni päritolu Kokkuvõte

Martin Luther ja reformatsiooni päritolu Video kokkuvõte Martin Luther oli saksa preester ja professor. Ta oli ajaloo üks olulisemaid renessansiajastuid. Reformatsiooni juht oli Martin Luther. Reformatsioon oli religioosne liikumine, mis tõi kaasa protestantismi. 1500ndate alguses oli Luther mures katoliku kiriku uskumuste ja tavade pärast. Aastal 1517 postitas Martin Luther oma üheksakümmend viis teesi katoliku kiriku uksele, et kõik saaksid neid vaadata Saksamaal Wittenbergis.

Tema üheksakümmend viis teesi olid tema mõtted katoliku kirikust ja selle õpetustest.

Martin Luther arvas, et katoliku kiriku tavad on vastuolus Piibli õpetustega. Tema üheksakümmend viis teesi seavad kahtluse alla kiriku järeleandmispraktika. Indulgentsid olid kiriku pattude eriline andestus, mis anti mõnikord sularahas. Samuti uskus Luther, et paavstid ja kirikukogud võivad ja teevad usuvaldkondades vigu. Martin Luther taotles reformi, kuid ta keelati katoliku kirikust või saadeti välja.

Martin Luther toodi vaimulike ja aadlike ette Saksamaal Wormsis asuvas katedraalis.

Nad käskisid tal reformi ettepanekud tagasi võtta, kuid Luther keeldus. Paljud inimesed nõustusid Lutheri tõekspidamistega ja hakkasid järgima tema õpetusi, mille tulemusel tekkis luterlus ja kalvinism. Protestandid keeldusid paavsti oma juhina vastu võtmast. Nad keskendusid Piibli õpetustele ja lähedasematele suhetele Jumalaga. Renessansi hilisemas osas pandi protestantlik liikumine teatud riikides tohutu rõhumise alla, mis viis immigratsioonini ja oli mitme sõja peamine tegur.


Martin Luther 95 Lõputöö kokkuvõte

Martin Luther oli saksa munk ja ülikooliprofessor, kes leidis, et kirikureformid on roomakatoliku kirikus vajalikud. Ta oli tugevalt roomakatoliku doktriini vastu ja lõi üheksakümmend viis teesi, et esitada seda, mida ta kirikus valesti pidas. Ta tahtis paljastada, et paljusid kiriku tavasid ei toetatud Piiblis. Lõputöö läbivaatamisel võib välja tuua mitu ühist teemat.

Esimene teema, mida ma märkasin, on see, et kristlaste lahkuse üks tõeline tegu on suurem kui ühegi mehe armuandmiskiri. Martin Luther oli väga häiritud paljudest asjadest, mida katoliku kirik tegi, kuid üks asi, mis teda kõige rohkem vihastas, oli armuandmine. Oma raamatus mainib ta oma armuandmist mitu korda. Martin Luther ütles:

„Need, kes usuvad, et armuandekirjade kaudu saavad nad oma pääste kindlustatud, saavad koos oma õpetajatega igaveseks hukka.” Ja „Tõeline kahetsus otsib ja armastab karistust, samal ajal kui armuandmisvõime seda leevendab ja põhjustab vihkamist. või vähemalt annab selleks võimaluse. ”

Teine teema üheksakümne viiest teesist, mida märkasin, oli see, et Martin uskus, et inimesel on oma õigus Piiblit ise tõlgendada. Katoliku kirik valetas sageli ja rääkis teistele, et piibel ütles üht, kuigi tegelikult ütles see midagi muud. Trükipressi leiutamisega paljastati Piibli tõelised sõnad. Seetõttu võiks üksikisik ise Piiblit lugeda ja tõlgendada. Martin Lutheri lisatöö piibli tõlkimisel ladina keelest saksa keelde aitas levitada piiblitõdesid.

Lõplik teema oli Martin Lutheri suurepärane julgus. See mees esitas väljakutse oma aja kõige võimsamatele usujuhtidele. Ta elas elu, mis oli keskendunud tõe leidmisele ja tema teod alustasid protestantlikku reformatsiooni. Tema elu näitas teistele tugeva usu tähtsust. .

Kokkuvõtteks võib öelda, et Martin Lutheri lõputöö avaldas ajaloole suurt mõju. Meie kirikutes ja tänapäeva ühiskonnas näete endiselt tema töö mõju. Tegelikult pakuvad tänapäeva katoliku ja protestantlikud kirikud koguduseliikmetele jõudu ja vabadust Piiblit tõlgendada. Mõlemad usurühmad said kasu tema võitlusest ja aastatepikkusest pühendunud tööst.


Mida inimesed räägivad

“Soovitatav ”

[The Torchlighters ’] Luther ei ole tulihingeline superkangelane: ta näeb sünge ja koormatud välja, naelutades kuulsalt oma “ üheksakümmend viis teesi ” kiriku uksele, ning äärmise ohu ees pimestatuna tundub ta haavatav ja hirmunud. Teisisõnu, … Luther ei ole kahemõõtmeline tegelane, vaid pigem sügavalt pühendunud inimkuju. Soovitatav.

Video raamatukoguhoidja
September/oktoober. 2016

"Lastele meeldib see ja#8221

Vaatasime just Martin Lutheri lugu. Minu lapsed lihtsalt armastavad Torchlighteri koomiksisarju, nii et saame neid pidevalt vaadata. Jumal õnnistagu teid poisid suure töö eest.

„Sisukas ”

Paljud mu [õpilased], isegi kui nad on keskkooliealised, on väljendanud, kui palju Torchlighteri sari neile on tähendanud. See on ajendanud neid rohkem Issandat taga ajama, rohkem temas puhkama, rohkem teistega jagama. Kui imeline!

Zack Shaffer
Kristliku kooli kasvataja

“Väga hariv ”


Martin Lutheri 95 teesi

See tõlge Martin Lutheri 95 teesist avaldati ajakirjas Martin Lutheri teosed  autor Adolf Spaeth jt [tähendab "ja teised"]. Avaldatud 1915.

Minu raamatud ja need Christian-history.org avaldatud said suurepäraseid ülevaateid. Sünopsed on minu sihtasutuste taastamise saidil. Need on saadaval kõikjal, kus raamatuid müüakse!

Seda saiti toetavad ka Xero kingad, sest nende kingad on leevendanud kaarvalu, mis mul on olnud pärast leukeemiat. Ma kannan Mesa Traili mudelit, see on ainus mudel, mida olen proovinud. Nende kingad müüvad ennast.

Oluline on seda tähele panna kõikꂕ teesist on seotud indulgentsidega.

Kuna Lutheri kuulsaim õpetus on Sola Fide, arvatakse sageli, et see oli üheksakümne viies teesi teema või et need hõlmasid paljusid doktriinilisi küsimusi, mis tal Rooma katoliiklusega oli.

Nad ei teinud seda. Need kõik puudutavad indulgentsioone.

Postitasin sellele saidile juba ammu Martin Lutheri 95 teesi ja#xa0, kuid mitte kõik ei saa aru nende kontekstist ega teeside tähendusest. Seega lisan Martin Lutheri väljakutse tegelikule tekstile vaid paar lõiku ajaloolisest kontekstist ja iga teesi selgituse.

Ajalooline kontekst

Sageli arvatakse, et Martin Luther protesteeris 95 teesi ajal roomakatoliku kiriku vastu või et suur osa tema reformatsiooniteoloogiast on neis pooldatud. See pole tõsi.

Martin Luther oli oma debativäljakutse postitamisel hea katoliiklane ja teema oli puhtalt "indulgentside", täpsemalt indulgentside kuritarvitamise ja müügi teema. (Indulgentside lühike määratlus oleks vabastamine patu karistusest Jeesuse ja pühakute teenete põhjal.) Konkreetne teema oli see, et Johann Tetzel, kelle paavst saatis raha teenima Püha Peetruse basiilika ehitamiseks aastal. Rooma püüdis vaesuses ja ebausklikes sakslastes teadmatust, kogudes neilt raha, et osta oma sugulased puhastustule tulest.

Martin Lutheri tees 95 teesi juurde

Armastusest tõe vastu ja soovist see päevavalgele tuua, arutatakse Wittenbergis järgmisi ettepanekuid auväärse isa Martin Lutheri, kunstide ja püha teoloogia magistriõppe ning tavalise õppejõu eesistumisel. see koht. Seetõttu palub ta, et need, kes ei saa meiega suuliselt kohal olla ja arutada, võivad seda teha kirja teel.

Meie Issanda Jeesuse Kristuse nimel. Aamen.

Martin Luther ei protesteerinud lihtsalt. Ta esitas üldisele väljakutsele avalikule arutelule, mille arutlusteemaks olid 95 teesi. Põhjus, miks avalikkust oli võimalik arutelule kutsuda üheksakümmend viis topics on sellepärast, et Luther oli tõesti käsitlenud ainult ühte teemat. Tal oli 95 argumenti ehk peaaegu 95 argumenti indulgentside vastu, kuid indulgentsid olid tema üks teema.

95 teesi selgitatud

Martin Luther, suur reformaator

1. Meie Issand ja Õpetaja Jeesus Kristus, kui Ta ütles  Poenitentiam agite  ["Parandage meelt"], soovis, et kogu usklike elu oleks meeleparandus.

Poenitentiam agite  on tsitaat Matteuse 3: 2 ja 4:17 Jerome'i ladinakeelsest vulgaadist. Kaasaegsetes inglise tõlgetes on "paranda meelt", kuigi  poenitentiam agite  tähendab sõna -sõnalt "tee meeleparandust". Martin Luther alustab oma argumente indulgentside vastu sellega, et me peaksime elama meeleparanduse elu.

2. Seda sõna ei saa mõista nii, et see tähendaks sakramentaalset meeleparandust, s.t ülestunnistust ja rahulolu, mida juhivad preestrid.

Luther väidab, et Jeesuse käsku „meeleparandust teha” ei saa tõlgendada nii, et see tähendaks preestrite poolt pärast ülestunnistust ette nähtud meeleparandust. (Tänapäeval oleks see tavaliselt midagi sellist, nagu "ütleme viis tervitust Maarjale, kolm Meie Isale ja üks kahetsusakt." Vähemalt nii kogesin ma roomakatoliiklasena üles kasvades. See võis Lutheri ajal olla väga erinev.)

Siinkohal püütakse patu karistus lahutada mis tahes meeleparandusest, mille on määranud preester. Järgnevates argumentides seob ta patu karistuse meeleparandusele ja enesevihkamisele, mitte aga meeleparandusele, mille Kirik võib ette näha.

Protestantlikuks motoks ülendab Luther tõepoolest Jeesuse käsu Rooma -Katoliku Kiriku traditsiooni üle, kuigi tema teeside edenedes saab selgeks, et ta ootab, et paavst nõustuks temaga nendes asjades. Ta üritab vastu seista  Johann Tetzelile  ja lõpetada tema väljapressimine saksa rahva vastu, mitte astuda vastu paavstile ega kirikule.

3. Ometi ei tähenda see mitte ainult sisemist meeleparandust, vaid ka sisemist meeleparandust, mis ei mõjutaks väliselt liha halvakspanu.

Luther väidab, et igasugune sisemine meeleparandus toob oma olemuselt kaasa „mitmekülgse lihapiinamise”. Teisisõnu, tõeline meeleparandus tapab liha mingil välisel viisil.

4. [Patu] karistus kestab seega seni, kuni enesevihkamine on jätkuvalt tõeline sisemine meeleparandus, ja kestab kuni meie sisenemiseni taevariiki.

Luther viitas "karistusele", sest just seda peaks järeleandmine kandma. Ta seob patu karistuse enesevihkamisega, mis ei tohiks kunagi lõppeda, mitte kiriku väljaantud ajutise meeleparandusega.  

5. Paavst ei kavatse maksta ega saa maksta mingeid muid karistusi peale nende, mille ta on määranud kas enda või kaanonite poolt.

Siin hakkab Luther kasutama seda, mida ta on väitnud esimeses neljas teesis. Tema sõnul on meeleparandus see, mida Jeesus on käskinud. See meeleparandus ei kao kunagi ja see ei ole preestri määratud patukahetsus. Niisiis järgib ta neid väiteid, öeldes, et ainsad karistused, mida paavst saab maksta, on karistused, mille ta on ise määranud oma volituste või kehtestatud kirikueeskirjade (kaanonite) alusel.

6. Paavst ei saa süüd vabastada, välja arvatud juhul, kui ta kuulutab, et see on Jumala poolt vabandatud, ja nõustudes Jumala andeksandmisega, kuigi võib kindlalt lubada, et ta saab andeks anda juhtudel, mis on tema otsustada. Kui tema õigust sellistel juhtudel andestada, siis taunitakse, jääb süü täielikult andestamata.

Paavst saab süütunnet vabastada ainult siis, kui Jumal on selle andestanud. Tema otsustada on reserveeritud valdkondi, mida ainult tema saab üle anda.

7. Jumal ei tunnista süüd kellelegi, keda Ta samal ajal ei alanda kõiges ja ei allu oma vikaarile preestrile.

Kui Jumal süüd tunnistab, alandab ta ka meelt parandavat inimest ja nõuab patukahetsejalt, et ta alluks Jumala esindajale preestrile. Siinkohal on asi selles, et seda tüüpi andestust ei ole võimalik saavutada Johann Tetzeli rahakasti panemisega, sest see ei tekita alandlikkust ega alanda preestrit.

Pange tähele, et Martin Luther on siiani hea katoliiklane ja preester. Tal on isegi oma hilisemates protestantlikes kirjutistes palju öelda pastorile allumise kohta. Siin edendab ta paremat teed remissioonini. Ülestunnistuses määratakse patukahetsus kahetseva inimese alandamiseks ja see meeleparandus tehakse preestrile kui Jumala esindajale.

8. Kahetsuskohustuslikud kaanonid on peale surutud ainult elavatele ja nende sõnul ei tohiks surijatele midagi peale suruda.

Kahetsevad kaanonid ja#xa0 olid reeglid karistuse määramiseks pärast ülestunnistust. Kahetsus hõlmas selliseid asju nagu pikaajaline paastumine või armulauast väljasaatmine perioodideks, mis võivad kesta üle kümne aasta.

Martin Luther juhib tähelepanu sellele, et kaanonitel, mida kirik võib ette kirjutada, on kõik seotud asjadega, mis puudutavad elavaid. Nende hulka ei kuulu puhastustuli. See on ilmselge alus argumendile, et kirik ei saa piirata puhastustule kestust, vaid saab tühistada ainult tema määratud karistused.

9. Seepärast on Püha Vaim paavstis meie vastu lahke, sest ta teeb oma määrustes alati erandi surma ja hädavajadusest.

Kiriku ja paavsti kaudu on Püha Vaim meie vastu lahke, sest patukahetsuskaanonid, karistused, mida kirikul on lubatud määrata, ei hõlma surma. Ma pole kindel, mida Martin Luther "vajaduse" all mõtleb. (Kui mõni lugeja saab seda aidata, saatke mulle meil, kasutades navigeerimisriba nuppu „Võtke minuga ühendust.”)

10. Asjatundmatud ja õelad on nende preestrite tegemised, kes surejate puhul reserveerivad kanoonilised meeleparandused puhastustule jaoks.

Kui preester saab surevalt ülestunnistuse, siis väljastab talle patukahetsuse, mis viiakse läbi puhastustules, siis on see preester võhik ja kuri. Ta on asjatundmatu, sest patukahetsuskaanid ei luba midagi sellist, ja ta on kuri, sest isegi surevale inimesele tuleks enne selle elust lahkumist anda täielik hingepuhastus.

11. See kanoonilise karistuse muutmine puhastustule karistuseks on ilmselgelt üks tõest, mis piiskoppide une ajal külvati.

Seda harjumust määrata puhastustöös maksmisele kuuluvaid karistusi võrreldakse Jeesuse tähendamissõnas Matteuse 23: 34–40 vaenlase tõrva külvamisega. Viited magavatele piiskoppidele võivad olla kahjutu viide tähendamissõnale, kuid see on tõenäolisem löök, Martin Lutheri teravmeelsuse varajane väljapanek.

12. Varasematel aegadel määrati kanoonilised karistused tõelise kahetsuse testidena mitte pärast, vaid enne vabastamist.

Preester määras karistused ette tõelise kurbuse ja tõelise meeleparanduse proovilepanekuks. Kui need karistused olid täidetud, vabastati patukahetseja patust alles siis.

13. Surevad vabastatakse surmaga kõigist karistustest, mis nad kanooniliste reeglite järgi on juba surnud, ja neil on õigus neist vabaneda.

Kuna patukahetsevad kaanonid kehtivad ainult selle elu kohta ja preestrid peavad määrama ainult karistusi, mida saab selles elus täita, vabastab kristlase surm ta kõikidest sellistest karistustest. Neid ei saa esitada need, kes on edasi läinud, ja nii nad vabastatakse.

14. [Hinge] ebatäiuslik tervis, see tähendab surnute ebatäiuslik armastus, toob endaga kaasa vajaduse, suure hirmu ja mida väiksem on armastus, seda suurem on hirm.

Luther jätab nüüd arutelu karistustest selles elus versus karistused puhastustules. Tema uus teema puudutab surejate hirmu ja meeleheidet. Mida vähem armastust on surev inimene oma elus üles näidanud, seda suurem on nende hirm surma ees.

15. Sellest hirmust ja õudusest piisab iseenesest (et mitte öelda midagi muud), et kujutada endast puhastustule karistust, kuna see on väga lähedal meeleheite õudusele.

See surmahirm, eriti neil, kes pole palju armastanud, on puhastustule karistus, sest see on nii täis meeleheidet. (Seda võib tõlgendada nii, et Martin Luther peab puhastustule ebavajalikuks, kuid ta näitab meile järgmistes teesides, et see pole tõsi.)

16. Tundub, et põrgu, puhastustuli ja taevas erinevad, nagu ka meeleheide, peaaegu meeleheide ja turvalisus.

Ma arvan, et see ei vaja teeside 14 ja 15 selgitust silmas pidades selgitust.

17. Kui hinged on puhastustules, tundub vajalik, et õudus kasvaks vähem ja armastus suureneks.

Puhastustuli peaks "puhastama" patuse, kelle patud pole nii suured, et ta peaks põrgusse minema. Sellest ka nimi "puhastustuli". Kui patune leiab, et tema südametunnistus on puhastatud puhastustules, peaks tema hirm ja meeleheide kasvama ning armastus suurenema.

18. Tundub tõestamata, kas mõistuse või Pühakirja tõttu, et need on väljaspool teenete seisundit, see tähendab kasvavat armastust.

See, nagu paljud teised Martin Lutheri traktaadi teesid, on lihtsalt järgmiste teeside kogumik. Siin ütleb ta, et keegi pole tõestanud, et puhastustules olevad inimesed ei saa teenida armastuse suurendamise teel teenet.

19. Jällegi näib olevat tõestamata, et nad või vähemalt kõik nad on kindlad või kindlad oma õnnistuses, kuigi me võime selles üsna kindlad olla.

Seades endiselt aluse teeside järgimisele, juhib Luther tähelepanu sellele, et keegi pole tõestanud, et kõik puhastustules olevad inimesed on kindlad, et nad lahkuvad puhastustööst taevasse. Sellegipoolest, mingil põhjusel, millest ma aru ei saa, ütleb ta, et me võime olla üsna kindlad, et on tõsi, et kõigil puhastustules viibijatel on kindlus, et nad jõuavad õnnistuseni.

20. Seepärast ei tähenda paavst "kõigi karistuste täieliku kaotamise" all tegelikult mitte "kõiki", vaid ainult tema enda määratud karistusi.

Kuna mõned karistused makstakse puhastustööl ära sealse elaniku kasuks, kasvava armastuse ja hirmu vähendamise tõttu, ei saa paavst pakkuda kõiki karistusi, vaid ainult neid, mille ta ise on määranud.

Peaksime siinkohal rõhutama, et indulgentsid on mõeldud   edastamisekskaristus  patust, mitte patust endast. Patt ise tuleb andestada meeleparanduse ja ülestunnistuse kaudu, kuid isegi andeksantud patuga kaasneb mõnikord hädaldamine, leinamine ja nutmine (Jakoobuse 4: 9,10). Rooma -katoliku kirik on selle nii kaugele viinud, et mõned patud saavad enne puhastamist tõelise puhastuse karistuse.

Siinkohal jõuab Luther taas järeldusele, et ainsad karistused patu eest, mille paavst saab eemaldada, on need, mille ta ise on ette näinud.

21. Seetõttu eksivad need indulgentside jutlustajad, kes ütlevad, et paavsti järeleandmiste tõttu vabaneb mees igast karistusest ja päästetakse

See oleks olnud Johann Tetzeli ja ilmselt ka teiste väide. Luther eitab seda oma varasemate punktide põhjal.

22. Arvestades, et ta ei maksa puhastustules hingedele karistust, mida kaanonite järgi oleks nad pidanud selles elus maksma.

Luther selgitab oma väitekirja 21 järeldust, seega kordab ta mõnda oma varasemat punkti. Siin ütleb ta, et kui indulgentside jutlustajad lubavad puhastustöös karistusi maksta, on nad väljaspool oma piire, sest mis tahes karistus, mida makstakse puhastustules, ei kuulu sellesse ellu. Luther on varem näidanud, et paavst saab maksta ainult karistusi, mida saab siin elus täita, sest need on ainsad, mis tal on kaanonite poolt lubatud määrata.

23. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest.

Even if it were possible to grant someone the remission of all penalties for the sins they have committed, this would surely be true to very few people, those who have lived the most perfect lives.

24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty.

Therefore, since, at best, only a rare few could have all their penalties remitted by an indulgence, then the majority of people are being deceived by the claims of the indulgence preachers.

25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish.

The pope's power over purgatory can be compared to a bishop's authority over his own diocese and parish.

Statements like these are confusing as you read through the 95 theses unless you realize that they are foundations for later arguments. Reading a statement like this is like reading the start of a sentence. Read on and Martin Luther will tell you where he is going.

26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession.

The parentheses belong to Martin Luther. However, at this point in his life, Martin Luther would not have denied to the pope the power of the keys of the kingdom (Matt. 16:18-19). Therefore this is mistranslated. Another translation reads: "(which he cannot exercise for them)."

Such a translation fits in with everything Luther has been saying. The pope cannot use the keys of the kingdom, which he does possess, to help people in purgatory. He can only help those who have penalties that belong to this life, penalties which the pope, either personally or through the local priest, has imposed himself.

Therefore, it is a good thing, Luther argues, if the pope prays for people in purgatory to have their penalties remitted, but he cannot remove penalties to souls in purgatory by the power of his office.

27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory].

Johann Tetzel had a famous jingle as a sales pitch. In German it rhymed:

So wie das Geld im Kasten klingt
Die Seele aus dem Fegfeuer springt

In English, this is "As soon as the money jingles in the box, the soul leaps out of Purgatory."

Luther says that those who say this are preaching the doctrines of men.

28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone.

Luther turns their jingle around and says that it is gain and avarice that can be increased by pennies jingling in money-boxes. The intercession of the Church produces the power of God, not money.

29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Severinus and Paschal.

Luther moves on in a surprising direction. What if there are souls that do not wish to have their time in Purgatory shortened? He references Saint Severinus of Noricum, a fifth-century Christian, and Pope Paschal I, who are supposed to have offered to go to Purgatory and bear its pains on behalf of other faithful believers.

It is very hard to track down this legend! So far all I have been able to find is rumor. I will keep looking to see where it came from. Siin on Vita Severinus, a life of Severinus, written by Eugippius. I'll see what I can find in it.

Pope Paschal I was pope from 817 to 824, and Severinus belongs to the mid-fourth century. He was the mentor of the famous desert hermit Anthony.

30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere much less that he has attained full remission.

I am sure that this would have been considered an undeniable truth in Luther's time. It would not be a popular teaching in our own. You can be sure, however, that if Luther presents this statement without evidence, then he was confident it would be accepted as true without argument.

31. Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare.

Martin Luther does not oppose indulgences in general. He opposes the improper use of them, and these 95 Theses are an explanation of what Luther sees as improper usage. The proposed public discussion probably never occurred in the format Luther was expecting. Instead, the discussion occurred without his supervision all over Germany after these theses were printed and reprinted by others.

32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon.

Luther asserts that those who assure themselves of their salvation because of a letter of pardon, which is what an indulgence is, will be eternally condemned.

33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him

In other words, beware of those preachers of indulgences who tell you that they will reconcile a man to God. The purpose of an indulgence is to remove some earthly penalty imposed by the church, such as temporary banishment from communion or a period of self-affliction. Reconciliation to God is not the purpose of an indulgence, and we should beware of those who say they are.

34. For these "graces of pardon" concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man.

Luther gives us a new phrase here: "sacramental satisfaction." That is what we have been describing. Indulgences can free you from penalties that are prescribed by priests, but not from penalties bestowed by God after this life.

35. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia.

Be assured that every Roman Catholic with any theological training and sincerity in their faith, even in the sixteenth century, would have agreed with Martin Luther on this ones. However, the hawkers of indulgences had stooped so low that they were promising instant release from purgatory as soon as a coin fell in the money box. There was no contrition necessary from the one who paid the money for they were not paying for penalties that were their own, and there was no way to know if contrition existed in a soul that is in purgatory. So the indulgence preachers said it was not necessary. This was not Roman Catholic theology, it was greed and evil sales methods by salesmen with corrupt souls.

36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon.

37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.

38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission.

39. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition.

40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only  relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them].

41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love.

42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy.

43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons

44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty.

45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God.

46. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons.

47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment.

48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring.

49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God.

50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St.  Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.

51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold.

52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it.

53. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others.

54. Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word.

55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.

56. The "treasures of the Church," out of which the pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ.

57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them.

58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man.

59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.

60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure

61. For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient.

62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God.

63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last.

64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.

65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches.

66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men.

67. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the "greatest graces" are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain.

68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross.

69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence.

70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope.

71. He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed!

72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed!

73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons.

74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth.

75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God--this is madness.

76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned.

77. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope.

78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii.

79. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render.

81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity.

82. To wit: "Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just the latter is most trivial."

83. Again: "Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?"

84. Again: "What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake?"

85. Again: "Why are the penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force?"

86. Again: "Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers?"

87. Again: "What is it that the pope remits, and what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation?"

88. Again: "What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations?"

89. "Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy?"

90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy.

91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved nay, they would not exist.

92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Peace, peace," and there is no peace!

93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Cross, cross," and there is no cross!

94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell

95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace.

Post-Script to the Ninety-Five Theses

The building of St. Peter's Basilica was
slowed by the 95 Theses.
Photo by Oriol Ventura Pedrol
Used with permission

Those are the 95 theses that changed the world!

Basically, this document, nailed to the cathedral door at Wittenberg (a common thing to do when you wanted to make a public announcement), ruined the trade in indulgences in that area.

Pope Leo X was engaged in building St. Peter's Basilica, and Martin Luther, an unknown monk, had suddenly stopped the inflow of money. It was this problem, begun by these 95 theses, that started the Reformation and changed the world.


Üheksakümmend viis teesi

Meie toimetajad vaatavad teie esitatud teabe üle ja otsustavad, kas artiklit muuta.

Üheksakümmend viis teesi, propositions for debate concerned with the question of indulgences, written (in Latin) and possibly posted by Martin Luther on the door of the Schlosskirche (Castle Church), Wittenberg, on October 31, 1517. This event came to be considered the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. (Vt Researcher’s Note.)

Luther originally had no intention of breaking from the Catholic church, assuming that his call for theological and ecclesiastical reform would be heard, and ordinarily his theses would have been of interest only to professional theologians. However, various political and religious situations of the time, and the fact that printing had been invented, combined to make the theses known throughout Germany within a few weeks. Luther did not give them to the people, although he did send copies to the archbishop of Mainz and to the bishop of Brandenburg. Others, however, translated them into German and had them printed and circulated. Thus, they became a manifesto that turned a protest about an indulgence scandal into the greatest crisis in the history of the Western Christian church, and ultimately Luther and his followers were excommunicated.

The doctrine concerning indulgences was uncertain in the Roman Catholic Church prior to the Council of Trent (1545–63), which defined the doctrine and eliminated abuses. Indulgences were the commutation for money of part of the temporal penalty due for sin—i.e., the practical satisfaction that was a part of the sacrament of penance. They were granted on papal authority and made available through accredited agents. Not at any time did they imply that divine forgiveness could be bought or sold or that they availed for those who were impenitent or unconfessed. But during the Middle Ages, as papal financial difficulties grew more complicated, they were resorted to very often, and abuses grew common. Further misunderstanding developed after Pope Sixtus IV extended indulgences to souls in purgatory. The often outrageous statements of indulgence sellers were a matter of protest among theologians.

The immediate cause of scandal in Germany in 1517 was the issue of an indulgence that was to pay for the rebuilding of St. Peter’s in Rome. But by secret agreement, of which most Germans, probably including Luther, were unaware, half the proceeds of the German sales were to be diverted to meet the huge debt owed to the financial house of Fugger by the archbishop and elector Albert of Mainz, who had incurred the debt in order to pay the pope for appointing him to high offices. Such a prince could not afford to be squeamish about the methods and language used by his agents, and the agent in Germany, the Dominican Johann Tetzel, made extravagant claims for the indulgence he was selling. The sale of this indulgence was forbidden in Wittenberg by the elector Frederick III the Wise, who preferred that the faithful should make their offerings at his own great collection of relics, exhibited in the Church of All Saints. Nevertheless, Wittenberg church members went to Tetzel, who was preaching nearby, and they showed the pardons for their sins received from him to Luther. Outraged at what he considered grave theological error, Luther wrote the Ninety-five Theses.

The theses were tentative opinions, about some of which Luther had not decided. In the theses the papal prerogative in this matter was not denied, though by implication papal policy was criticized. The spiritual, inward character of the Christian faith was stressed. The fact was emphasized that money was being collected from poor people and sent to the rich papacy in Rome, a point popular with the Germans, who had long resented the money they were forced to contribute to Rome.

Subsequently, the archbishop of Mainz, alarmed and annoyed, forwarded the documents to Rome in December 1517, with the request that Luther be inhibited. A counterthesis was prepared by a Dominican theologian and defended before a Dominican audience at Frankfurt in January 1518. When Luther realized the extensive interest his tentative theses had aroused, he prepared a long Latin manuscript with explanations of his Ninety-five Theses, published in the autumn of 1518.

The practice of dating the beginning of the Reformation from the date that the Ninety-five Theses were supposedly posted did not develop until after the mid-17th century.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor.


Ten Things to Know about Martin Luther and His 95 Theses:

1. Law and Lightning Contributed to Martin Luther’s Beginnings
Martin Luther (Nov. 10, 1483 - Feb. 18, 1546) was a German theologian in Eisleben, Germany who attended Latin school as a child, and when he was thirteen years old, attended law school at the University of Erfurt. He was nicknamed “The Philosopher” because he did so well in public debates in school. However, it was one stormy night in 1505 that really changed Luther’s life. As he was walking, lightning struck the ground nearby and caused him to cry out to St. Anne and vow to become a monk if he lived he did so he honored his vow and became a monk.

2. Questioning of the Roman Catholic Church Increased before Luther’s 95 Theses
In the sixteenth century, many scholars and theologians were questioning some of the practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Fueled by the writings of church philosopher Augustine, these individuals believed that salvation came from God only (grace alone through faith alone), while the Catholic Church believed that faith and works were needed in response to God's grace. Today the Catholic Church would say that faith and the sacraments of the faith are needed for salvation (J.D. Crichton, Christian Celebration: The Sacraments). Luther especially followed Augustine’s belief of salvation and that the Bible was the only religious authority, not that of Catholic Church figures. He would later use these beliefs to build the foundation for the Protestant Reformation.

3. The Final Push for Change Began with a Scandal
This questioning of the Catholic Church’s beliefs was intensified due to a scandal involving giving indulgences indulgences (a type of payment for sin) were given to the church so those paying (or those they were paying on behalf of) would be absolved of sins. One could even purchase indulgences for the deceased. Germany had banned indulgence-selling but it was still happening nonetheless this was especially evident when a friar named Johann Tetzel decided to sell indulgences in 1517 to pay for renovating Rome’s St. Peter’s Basilica. Luther and others had had enough at this point and decided something had to be done.

4. The First Copy of 95 Theses was Nailed to Church Door
Fed up by the behavior of Tetzel, Luther decided a public and academic debate was in order and he wrote the 95 Theses (also known as the “Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences”) that listed some propositions and questions for debate. This he posted to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church on October 31, 1517, in hopes that Archbishop Albert of Mainz, superior to Tetzel, would attend and also stop Tetzel from continuing to sell indulgences. Thanks to the invention of printing, the theses began to circulate around, and more people took notice and wanted answers from the Catholic Church.

5. The 95 Theses Called for Reform and Returning Repentance to God
Written in a tone of questioning rather than accusing, the theses centered most on the first two theses Luther had written: that only faith leads to salvation and God desires for believers to seek repentance. The rest of the 93 theses focused on indulgences and why it didn’t line up with the first two theses. Luther even discussed the indulgence scandal involving St. Peter’s Basilica, questioning why the pope wouldn’t consider paying for the church’s renovations himself than taking from the poor (Thesis 86).

6. Luther Called to Defend His Teachings
In the summer of 1518, many in Europe had been exposed to the 95 Theses, and Luther was called to Augsberg, Germany to defend his teachings of the theses. He was to present his theses to an assembly called a “diet,” led by the main anti-supporter of Luther, Cardinal Thomas Cajetan. After three days spent with the two men debating one another, a resolution couldn’t be reached, and Luther returned to Wittenberg.

7. The Pope Got Involved and Luther Was Called a Heretic
Beginning on November 9, 1518, Pope Leo X stated that Luther’s teachings and position were in conflict with the church’s teachings, which led Luther to step down from public debate. However, others continued on without him and pushed against the church’s authority, strengthening the Protestant Reformation. Proceedings then continued in 1519 to examine more of Luther’s teachings, seeing them as scandalous and possibly heretical. However, it was in July 1520 that the pope considered Luther’s teachings heretical and demanded that he recant his beliefs or be excommunicated. Luther refused to yield.

8. Luther Was Excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church
On January 3, 1521, Luther was officially excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church by Pope Leo X. Months later, April 17, 1521, Luther went before another assembly, the Diet of Worms, in Germany to see if he would recant his teachings, but he refused and a month later, on May 25, 1521, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V signed an edict saying that Luther’s writings were to be burned. Luther’s return to Wittenberg in 1521 also showed him that the reforming from his 95 Theses was turning into a political debate and sparked the Peasants’ War in Germany something he wasn’t for.

9. Luther Withdrew from Public View, Married, and Raised a Family
Now apart from the Protestant Reformation, Luther preached, taught classes, and began a project that took him a decade to complete, translating the New Testament of the Bible into German. His translating actually impacted the German language positively, as it allowed more to understand what the Bible was teaching, and many scholars followed the same approach in interpretation. He also decided to get married to a former nun, Katherine of Bora, and they had five or six children together. Previously, Luther had debated against the Roman Catholic Church on clerical celibacy and also felt the Peasants’ War was God signaling the last days before Christ’s return so marriage was returning to God’s order for mankind.

10. Luther Established What Is Now Called Being a Polemical Theologian
Luther went back to the town of his birth, Eisleben, Germany, to settle a dispute between friends while dealing with advancing poor health. Before he could return home to his wife and family, he passed away on February 18, 1546. Centuries since his death, many have more books of Luther’s writings in their houses than many other well-known theologians, while his approach to theology, that of polemical theology, is seen by some as hard to argue and reconcile with it being formed through argument and controversy. However, no one can deny that the efforts Martin Luther made toward reforming Christianity are nothing short of inspiring.

Reformation Day on October 31 st reminds us of what the German theologian Martin Luther did for the Christian faith years ago, standing firm on his beliefs even when he had to stand before the Roman Catholic Church. Martin Luther devoted his entire life to believing in a God who forgives and provides the whole way to salvation and freedom from sin through His Son Jesus. We could all take a lesson from Martin Luther nowadays, in a world that is still looking to sell and/or pay for indulgences in order to rectify their sins. It’s about returning to God in faith and seeking Him for the good works we are to do. Reading and believing the Bible, as well as daily prayer and interaction with God, were steps Martin Luther did to strengthen his trust and faith in God, and they are steps we can take too to bring hope in a challenging time.


Martin Luther

As a young man in Germany at the beginning of the sixteenth century, Luther was studying law at the university. One day he was caught in a storm and was almost killed by lightning. He cried out to St. Anne and promised God he would become a monk. In 1505, Luther entered the Augustinian monastery, and in 1507 became a priest. His monastic leaders sent him to Rome in 1510, but Luther was disenchanted with the ritualism and dead faith he found in the papal city. There was nothing in Rome to mend his despairing spirit or settle his restless soul. He seemed so cut off from God, and nowhere could he find a cure for his malady.

Martin Luther was bright, and his superiors soon had him teaching theology in the university. In 1515, he began teaching Paul's epistle to the Romans. Slowly, Paul's words in Romans began to break through the gloom of Luther's soul. Luther wrote

The more Luther's eyes were opened by his study of Romans, the more he saw the corruption of the church in his day. The glorious truth of justification by faith alone had become buried under a mound of greed, corruption, and false teaching. Most galling was the practice of indulgences -- the certificates the church provided, for a fee, supposedly to shorten one's stay in Purgatory. The pope was encouraging the sale of indulgences. He planned to use the money to help pay for the building of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

Johann Tetzel was one of the indulgence sellers in Luther's vicinity. He used little advertising jingles to encourage people to buy his wares: "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs." Once Luther realized the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice alone for our sins, he found such practices revolting. The more he studied the Scriptures, the more he saw the need of showing the church how it had strayed from the truth.


The 95 Theses

The Sale of Indulgences

He makes three main points in his 95 theses. Here they are, in his own words:

1. Selling indulgences to finance the building of St. Peter's is wrong.

"The revenues of all Christendom are being sucked into this insatiable basilica. The Germans laugh at calling this the common treasure of Christendom. Before long, all the churches, palaces, walls and bridges of Rome will be built out of our money.

First of all, we should rear living temples, next local churches, and only last of all St. Peter's, which is not necessary for us. We Germans cannot attend St. Peter's. Better that it should never be built than that our parochial churches should be despoiled. .

Why doesn't the pope build the basilica of St. Peter's out of his own money? He is richer than Croesus. He would do better to sell St. Peter's and give the money to the poor folk who are being fleeced by the hawkers of indulgences."

2. The pope has no power over Purgatory.

"Papal indulgences do not remove guilt. Beware of those who say that indulgences effect reconciliation with God. . He who is contrite has plenary remission of guilt and penalty without indulgences.

The pope can only remove those penalties which he himself has imposed on earth, for Christ did not say, 'Whatsoever I have bound in heaven you may loose on earth.'

Therefore I claim that the pope has no jurisdiction over Purgatory.

. If the pope does have power to release anyone from Purgatory, why in the name of love does he not abolish Purgatory by letting everyone out? If for the sake of miserable money he released uncounted souls, why should he not for the sake of most holy love empty the place?

To say that souls are liberated from Purgatory is audacious. To say they are released as soon as the coffer rings is to incite avarice. The pope would do better to give everything away without charge."

3. Buying indulgences gives people a false sense of security and endangers their salvation.

"Indulgences are positively harmful to the recipient because they impede salvation by diverting charity and inducing a false sense of security. Christians should be taught that he who gives to the poor is better than he who receives a pardon.

He who spends money on indulgences instead of relieving want receives not the indulgence of the pope but the indignation of God. .

Indulgences are most pernicious because they induce complacency and thereby imperil salvation. Those persons are damned who think that letters of indulgence make them certain of salvation.

God works by contraries so that a man feels himself to be lost in the very moment when he is on the point of being saved. . Man must first cry out that there is no health in him. He must be consumed with horror. This is the pain of Purgatory. .

In this disturbance salvation begins. When man believes himself to be utterly lost, light breaks. Peace comes in the word of Christ through faith. He who does not have this is lost even though he be absolved a million times by the pope, and he who does have it may not wish to be released from Purgatory, for true contrition seeks penalty. Christians should be encouraged to bear the cross."


Vaata videot: Qué son las 95 tesis de Lutero? Por qué 500 años de la reforma protestante el 31 de Octubre? (Jaanuar 2022).